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Critical Reviews™ in Eukaryotic Gene Expression

Impact factor: 1.571

ISSN Print: 1045-4403
ISSN Online: 2162-6502

Critical Reviews™ in Eukaryotic Gene Expression

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevEukaryotGeneExpr.v15.i1.40
pages 49-73

Nuclear Transport of Steroid Hormone Receptors

Leonard C. Shank
Center for Cell Signaling, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908
Bryce M. Paschal
Center for Cell Signaling, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908

ABSTRACT

Nuclear receptors (NRs) comprise a superfamily of ligand-regulated transcription factors implicated in a host of physiological processes, including development, differentiation, and proliferation. Translated in the cytoplasm, NRs must undergo import into the nucleus in order to modulate transcription of target genes in response to cognate hormones. NRs also undergo export from the nucleus, and there is emerging evidence that NR nucleocytoplasmic shuttling contributes to their regulation. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling may provide a nexus for crosstalk between NRs and kinase pathways. Here we review some of the key studies on nuclear import and export of steroid hormone receptors within the NR superfamily, address some of the challenges in experimental dissection of NR transport and discuss recent findings linking specific kinase pathways to NR export.