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Critical Reviews™ in Eukaryotic Gene Expression

Impact factor: 1.660

ISSN Print: 1045-4403
ISSN Online: 2162-6502

Critical Reviews™ in Eukaryotic Gene Expression

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevEukarGeneExpr.v18.i2.50
pages 163-172

Vitamin D Control of Gene Expression: Temporal and Spatial Parameters for Organization of the Regulatory Machinery

Martin Montecino
Centro de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas y Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago
Gary Stein
University of Vermont
Janet L. Stein
Department of Biochemistry University of Vermont
Jane B. Lian
Department of Biochemistry University of Vermont
Andre J. van Wijnen
Department of Cell Biology and Cancer Center, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655
Loreto Carvallo
Departamento de Bioquímicay Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biolêgicas, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile
Sylvain Marcellini
Departamento de Bioquímicay Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biolêgicas, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile
Fernando Cruzat
Departamento de Bioquímicay Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biolêgicas, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile
Gloria Arriagada
Departamento de Bioquímicay Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biolêgicas, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D is a principal modulator of skeletal gene expression, thus necessitating an understanding of interfaces between the activity of this steroid hormone and regulatory cascades that are functionally linked to the regulation of skeletal genes. Physiologic responsiveness requires combinatorial control, whereas coregulatory proteins determine the specificity of biologic responsiveness to physiologic cues. It is becoming increasingly evident that regulatory complexes containing the vitamin D receptor are dynamic rather than static. Temporal and spatial modifications in the composition of these complexes provide a mechanism for integrating regulatory signals to support positive or negative control through synergism and antagonism. Compartmentalization of components of vitamin D control in nuclear microenvironments supports the integration of regulatory activities, perhaps by establishing thresholds for protein activity in time frames that are consistent with the execution of regulatory signaling.