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Critical Reviews™ in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
IF: 2.156 5-Year IF: 2.255 SJR: 0.649 SNIP: 0.599 CiteScore™: 3

ISSN Print: 1045-4403
ISSN Online: 2162-6502

Critical Reviews™ in Eukaryotic Gene Expression

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevEukarGeneExpr.v5.i2.10
pages 97-125

Androgen Receptor: An Overview

Chawnshang Chang
Department of Human Oncology and Program in Endocrinology-Reproductive Physiology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53792
Alan Saltzman
Department of Human Oncology and Program in Endocrinology-Reproductive Physiology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53792
Shuyuan Yeh
Department of Human Oncology and Program in Endocrinology-Reproductive Physiology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53792
Winjing Young
Department of Human Oncology and Program in Endocrinology-Reproductive Physiology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53792
Evan T. Keller
Department of Urology, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, 1500 E. Medical Center Dr., Room 5308 CCGCB, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA; Center for Translational Medicine, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China
Han-Jung Lee
Department of Human Oncology and Program in Endocrinology-Reproductive Physiology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53792
Chihuei Wang
Department of Human Oncology and Program in Endocrinology-Reproductive Physiology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53792
Atsushi Mizokami
Department of Integrative Cancer Therapy and Urology, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan

ABSTRACT

The action of androgens in regulating development and growth is mediated by androgen receptor (AR). AR is a member of the steroid hormone receptor superfamily, a class of receptors that function through their ability to regulate the transcription of specific genes. The AR is located in various target tissues, with its levels and activity altered with the onset of various cellular events (e.g., sexual development, malignant transformation). The modulation of AR levels occurs through a number of mechanisms, including transcription, and is regulated by various factors (e.g., androgens). The ability of AR to modulate gene transcription is through its interaction with specific DNA sequences located near or within the target gene promoter. The importance of the AR in reproductive physiology has been emphasized by the finding of AR mutations, leading to a variety of disorders, including testicular feminization syndrome. In this article, we review the structure and function of AR and the role AR plays in the function of the mammalian system.


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