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Critical Reviews™ in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
IF: 1.734 5-Year IF: 1.848 SJR: 0.627 SNIP: 0.516 CiteScore™: 1.96

ISSN Print: 1045-4403
ISSN Online: 2162-6502

Critical Reviews™ in Eukaryotic Gene Expression

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevEukaryotGeneExpr.2016018255
pages 363-381

Antiretroviral Agents: Looking for the Best Possible Chemotherapeutic Options to Conquer HIV

Tahir Farooq
Department of Applied Chemistry, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan
Arruje Hameed
Department of Biochemistry, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan
Kanwal Rehman
Institute of Pharmacy, Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan
Muhammad Ibrahim
Department of Applied Chemistry, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan
Muhammad Imran Qadir
Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Bosan Road, Multan, Pakistan
Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

For the last thirty years, ongoing efforts have revolutionized the antiretroviral therapy, which changed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections from terrifying lethal diseases to chronic conditions. However, many challenges, like emergence of drug resistance, limited the scope of activity of currently existing anti-HIV agents. Quite often severe side effects and lifelong dependency are the major concerns of present era. All these issues have compelled the scientists to reconsider and refine the current therapies and also contemplate the pivotal priorities for the developments of novel therapeutic paradigms. In response to this global concern, medicinal chemists and pharmaceutical scientists have put in solid efforts to search for or develop novel, more effective, safer, and affordable antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV infections. The exploration and utilization of natural sources has always been an attractive research area in this regard. In the search of the most suitable and potent anti-HIV agents, researchers have explored the anti-HIV activity of different classes of compounds originating from plants, marine organisms, and microorganisms. This review will highlight the recent notable developments for the discovery of antiretroviral agents. Furthermore, this review also highlights the better in-depth insights of existing HIV cures and preventive strategies.