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Critical Reviews™ in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
IF: 1.734 5-Year IF: 1.848 SJR: 0.627 SNIP: 0.516 CiteScore™: 1.96

ISSN Print: 1045-4403
ISSN Online: 2162-6502

Critical Reviews™ in Eukaryotic Gene Expression

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevEukaryotGeneExpr.2016016782
pages 317-332

Nutrition and Diabetes Mellitus: How are They Interlinked?

Kanwal Rehman
Institute of Pharmacy, Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan
Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has risen exponentially, and the number of incidences increases every day. The purpose of this article is to summarize the experimental evidence supporting the important association between nutrition and diet-based therapy for the control and management of T2DM. Evidence from several in vitro, in vivo, and human studies broadly found that nutrition-based therapy enriched with several important phytochemical constituents modulates lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and it ameliorates glucolipotoxicity and insulin resistance. Besides these activities, nutrition-based therapy has also been shown to improve adipose tissue metabolism and to alleviate various proinflammatory processes, oxidative stress, and stress-sensitive signaling pathways. Dietary recommendations for patients with type 2 diabetes emphasize diet-based therapy and include excellent sources of dietary fibers and polyphenols.