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Critical Reviews™ in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Malignant Melanoma: Skin Cancer−Diagnosis, Prevention, and Treatment
School of Pharmacy, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, PR China
Muhammad Imran Qadir
Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan
Institute of Molecular Biology & Biotechnology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan
Melanoma is a skin cancer caused by a malignancy of melanocytes. Incidence of melanoma is rapidly increasing worldwide, which results in public health problems. Primary extracutaneous melanomas can be ocular, gastrointestinal, mucosal, leptomeningeal, genitourinary, and lymphatic. The relationship between exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light and development of melanoma is intensively acute and complex, and intermittent sun exposure greatly increases the risk of melanoma. It is the fifth most common type of cancer in men number and the sixth most common in women. The diagnosis of melanoma is made through clinical assessment of the pigmented by health care professionals. Architectural features of malignant melanoma including asymmetry, confluence of growth, marked cellularity, and poor circumscription. The cytological feature of malignant melanoma include an irregular and thick nuclear membrane and prominent nucleoli. The preventive measures include reducing exposure to UV light and the sun. The early detection of skin cancer greatly reduces both short- and long-term morbidity and mortality. The treatment and follow-up with the doctor for melanoma patients may differ because of the stage of the tumor and the primary lesion. The typical therapy for malignant melanoma is surgical excision, immunotherapy such as interleukin 2 (IL-2), gene therapy, and biochemotherapy.
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