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Critical Reviews™ in Eukaryotic Gene Expression

Impact factor: 2.385

ISSN Print: 1045-4403
ISSN Online: 2162-6502

Critical Reviews™ in Eukaryotic Gene Expression

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevEukarGeneExpr.v22.i2.50
pages 131-148

Prostate Cancer and Parasitism of the Bone Hematopoietic Stem Cell Niche

Chunyan Yu
Department of Urology, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI; Tianjin Key Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology; Key Laboratory of Educational Ministry of China;Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences
Yusuke Shiozawa
Department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI
Russell S. Taichman
Department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI
Laurie K. McCauley
Department of Periodontics/Prevention/Geriatrics, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan; Department of Pathology, Medical School, University of Michigan
Kenneth J. Pienta
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ann Arbor, Ml 48109-0680
Evan T. Keller
Department of Urology, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, 1500 E. Medical Center Dr., Room 5308 CCGCB, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA; Center for Translational Medicine, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China

ABSTRACT

A subpopulation of men that appear cured of prostate cancer (PCa) develop bone metastases many years after prostatectomy. This observation indicates that PCa cells were present outside of the prostate at the time of prostatectomy and remained dormant. Several lines of evidence indicate that there are disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in the bone marrow at the time of prostatectomy. DTCs parasitize the bone microenvironment, where they derive support and impact the microenvironment itself. These DTCs appear to be a heterogeneous population of PCa cells; however, some of them appear to have some aspects of a cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotype as they can develop into clinically detectable metastases. The concept of CSC is controversial; however, several markers of CSC have been identified for PCa, which may represent cells of either basal or luminal origin. These DTCs have now been shown to compete for the hematopoietic stem cell niche in bone, where they may be placed in a dormant state. Interaction with a variety of host factors, including cytokine and cells, may impact the metastatic development and progression, including the dormant state. For example, myeloid cells have been shown to impact both the premetastatic niche and established tumors. Understanding the concepts of how PCa successfully parasitizes the bone microenvironment is paramount toward identifying therapeutic candidates to prevent or diminish PCa bone metastases.