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Critical Reviews™ in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
IF: 2.156 5-Year IF: 2.255 SJR: 0.649 SNIP: 0.599 CiteScore™: 3

ISSN Print: 1045-4403
ISSN Online: 2162-6502

Critical Reviews™ in Eukaryotic Gene Expression

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevEukaryotGeneExpr.2020034571
Forthcoming Article

Role of Micro RNAs in Establishment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Latency

Muhammad Munam Mustafa Bukhari
Divison of Molecular Virology, National Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology (CEMB), University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
Iqra Mir
Divison of Molecular Virology, National Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology (CEMB), University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
Muhammad Idrees
Divison of Molecular Virology, National Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology (CEMB), University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
Samia Afzal
Divison of Molecular Virology, National Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology (CEMB), University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
Muhammad Shahid
Divison of Molecular Virology, National Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology (CEMB), University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) emerged as an epidemic in Africa in 1981 and now it has taken the form of a most destructive global pandemic. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is responsible for the pathogenesis of AIDS and it is usually transmitted through unsafe sexual activities. HIV is a lentivirus that can remain latent in the host cells for a long period. HIV has various mechanisms to establish latency. HIV genome encodes for several micro RNAs (micro RNA-TAR, micro RNA-H1, micro RNA-H3, micro RNA-Nef-367) that act as post-transcriptional control by targeting mRNA sequences. The micro RNA-TAR, micro RNA-Nef-367, and micro RNA-H1 have established roles in HIV latency while micro RNA-H3 can activate the latent reservoirs of HIV. The human genome also encodes several micro RNAs that have defensive roles against infections. Cellular micro RNAs (micro RNA-29a, micro RNA-146a, micro RNA-34c-5ˊp, micro RNA-186, micro RNA-210 and micro RNA-222) also contribute to viral latency. The most challenging hurdle in the development of effective HIV therapeutics is viral latency. A complete understanding of latency will enable us to develop efficient therapeutics and to eradicate HIV from the globe.