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International Journal of Physiology and Pathophysiology

ISSN Print: 2155-014X
ISSN Online: 2155-0158

International Journal of Physiology and Pathophysiology

DOI: 10.1615/IntJPhysPathophys.v3.i1.90
pages 79-99

Matrix Gla-Protein and Its Role in Vascular Calcification

Victoria Yu. Garbuzova
Sumy State University, Ukraine
Oleksandr V. Ataman
Sumy State University, Sumy, Ukraine

ABSTRACT

This work presents data on the structure of matrix Gla-protein (MGP), its chemical characteristics, control of its synthesis and post-translational modifications, information on the structure of the MGP gene, and its most common single nucleotide polymorphisms. Among the factors regulating MGP expression and activity, there are vitamin D, retinoic acid, extracellular calcium ions, cytokines, and some hormones. It has been emphasized that MGP is an important natural inhibitor of soft tissue calcification. These features of the protein are associated with the presence of γ-carboxyglutamic acid residues in its molecule. Four possible mechanisms of MGP anti-calcification activity have been described: binding to calcium ions and hydroxyapatite crystals; binding to extracellular matrix component; interaction with bone morphogenic protein (BMP-2) and elimination of the effects of the latter; its participation in the regulation of apoptosis. It has been emphasized that studying of MGP gene allelic variants is important in the context of their possible association with cardiovascular and other diseases.