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International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
IF: 1.211 5-Year IF: 1.394 SJR: 0.433 SNIP: 0.661 CiteScore™: 1.38

ISSN Print: 1521-9437
ISSN Online: 1940-4344

International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms

DOI: 10.1615/IntJMedMushr.v6.i3.20
12 pages

Chemopreventive and Tumoricidal Properties of Ling Zhi Mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.: Fr.)Lloyd (Aphyllophoromycetideae). Part II. Mechanism Considerations (Review)

Yihuai Gao
Institute of Food, Nutrition and Human Health, Massey University; Landcare Research, Private Bag 92170, Auckland, New Zealand
Shufeng Zhou
Division of Pharmacy, School of Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, Queensland University of Technology, Australia; Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore; University of South Florida FL 33612, USA

ABSTRACT

We have demonstrated accumulating evidence from preclinical (animals) and clinical studies that has indicated the cancer-preventive and anticancer activities of Ling Zhi Mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum) in Part I. This part highlights the possible underlying mechanisms involved. Data from a recent clinical study in cancer patients showed Ganopoly (a crude G. lucidum polysaccharide extract) enhanced host immune function including increased activity of effector cells including T lymphocytes, macrophages, and natural killer cells, although striking objective antitumor responses were not observed. Currently available data from a number of in vitro and in vivo studies suggests that the cancer preventive and tumoricidal properties of G. lucidum might be ascribed to its ability to enhance the host's immune functions, antioxidative and radical-scavenging effects, inhibition of metabolic activation and enhancement detoxification of carcinogens, and direct cytotoxicity. The major active constituents from G. lucidum may also exert chemopreventive and tumoricidal effects by antiproliferation and modulation of signaling transduction molecules and induction of cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. Other mechanisms, such as anti-angiogenesis, antipromotion, and antiprogression, might also play a role. Although G. lucidum may represent a practical and promising approach for cancer prevention and cancer treatment, further studies are needed to explore the underlying mechanisms involved and identify unrevealed molecular targets.