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International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
IF: 1.211 5-Year IF: 1.394 SJR: 0.433 SNIP: 0.661 CiteScore™: 1.38

ISSN Print: 1521-9437
ISSN Online: 1940-4344

International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms

DOI: 10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.v18.i6.30
pages 489-499

Diverse Effects of the Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Agaricomycetes), in Combination with Tamoxifen Citrate and Doxorubicin in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

Sevcan Atay
Department of Medical Biochemistry, Ege University School of Medicine, Bornova, izmir, Turkey
Handan Ak
Department of Medical Biochemistry, Ege University School of Medicine, Bornova, izmir, Turkey
Erbil Kalmis
Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology, Manisa, Turkey
Husniye Kayalar
Department of Pharmacognosy, Ege University, Bornova, Izmir, Turkey
Hikmet Hakan Aydin
Department of Medical Biochemistry, Ege University, Bornova, Izmir, Turkey

ABSTRACT

Ganoderma lucidum, a medicinal mushroom, has been known to have antimetastatic and anticarcinogenic bioactivities and is widely used in Asian countries in complementary and alternative medicine. However, there is no information regarding its combined usage with tamoxifen and doxorubicin in breast cancer treatment. We investigated the interactions between G. lucidum and tamoxifen or doxorubicin in an MCF-7 human estrogen receptorpositive breast cancer cell line. The antiproliferative properties of 6 extracts were assessed using the WST-8 method. The most effective extract in inhibiting MCF-7 cell viability was then evaluated in terms of its antimetastatic activity by the Boyden chamber assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle assays were performed by flow cytometry. G. lucidum ether extract (G.Ether) was the most effective extract in inhibiting cell viability, among other extracts, with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of 100 and 12.82 μg/mL at 48 and 72 hours, respectively. We found that G.Ether is capable of inducing apoptosis and changing cell cycle dynamics. However, incubation with G.Ether did not significantly affect MCF-7 cell motility. We then assessed the interactions between G.Ether and tamoxifen or doxorubicin in MCF-7 cells. The interactions between G.Ether and cancer therapeutics were examined by combination index analysis and MacSynergy II software. Interestingly, G.Ether increased the antiproliferative effect of tamoxifen but exhibited strong antagonism with doxorubicin in the MCF-7 cell line.