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International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
IF: 1.423 5-Year IF: 1.525 SJR: 0.431 SNIP: 0.661 CiteScore™: 1.38

ISSN Print: 1521-9437
ISSN Online: 1940-4344

International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms

DOI: 10.1615/IntJMedMushr.v10.i2.20
pages 115-125

The Nature of Apoptosis of Human Breast Cancer Cells Induced by Three Species of Genus Ganoderma P. Karst. (Aphyllophoromycetideae) Crude Extracts

Yew Keong Choong
Phytochemistry Unit, Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research, 50588 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Mohamed Mustapha Noordin
Department of Pathology and Veterinary Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti of Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Selangor, Malaysia
Suhaila Mohamed
Department of Food Science and Management, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti of Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Selangor, Malaysia
Abdul Manaf Ali
Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Selangor, Malaysia
Nor Aini B. Umar
Department of Pathology, Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM, Bandar Tun Razak, 56000 Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Chow Chin Tong
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti of Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Selangor, Malaysia

ABSTRACT

The cytotoxic effect of crude extracts of three Ganoderma species (G. lucidum, G. tropicum, and G. tsugae) was screened against the human estrogen-independent cell line, MDA-MB-435 using a microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay. The crude extract obtained from the fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum by hot water extraction procedures had IC50 values ranging from 140 to 350 μg mL−1. Acridine-orange/propidium iodine staining, electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy showed that the crude extract caused both apoptosis and necrosis. The G. lucidum mycelial crude extract was most effective, with an IC50 value of 148 μg mL−1.