Library Subscription: Guest
Begell Digital Portal Begell Digital Library eBooks Journals References & Proceedings Research Collections
International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
IF: 1.423 5-Year IF: 1.525 SJR: 0.433 SNIP: 0.661 CiteScore™: 1.38

ISSN Print: 1521-9437
ISSN Online: 1940-4344

International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms

DOI: 10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2019030338
pages 353-366

Optimization of Cultivation Conditions of Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Agaricomycetes) for the Highest Antioxidant Activity and Antioxidant Content

Hai-wei Lou
Department of Bioengineering, College of Food Science and Institute of Food Biotechnology, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China
Xin-yue Guo
Department of Bioengineering, College of Food Science and Institute of Food Biotechnology, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China
Xin-chao Zhang
Department of Bioengineering, College of Food Science and Institute of Food Biotechnology, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China
Li-qiong Guo
Institute of Food Biotechnology and College of Food Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China; Research Center for Micro-Ecological Agent Engineering and Technology of Guangdong Province, Guangzhou, China
Jun-fang Lin
Institute of Food Biotechnology and College of Food Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China; Research Center for Micro-Ecological Agent Engineering and Technology of Guangdong Province, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China

ABSTRACT

Ganoderma lucidum is a famous medicinal mushroom that is rich in antioxidants. The content of antioxidant components of grains can be effectively improved by G. lucidum as the fermenting strain. Optimization of the solid-state fermentation medium and optimization of the fermentation conditions were studied. The optimal fermentation substrate combination of G. lucidum TS (GL-TS) was 46.79% buckwheat, 53.21% rice; the optimal fermentation substrate combination of G. lucidum Am (GL-Am) was 4.17% soybean, 95.83% rice. The optimal fermentation conditions of GL-TS and GL-Am were as follows: inoculum amounts of 4.5% and 7.5%, temperatures of 30°C and 32°C, medium moisture content of 70% for both media, material granularities of 0.212-0.355 mm and 0.500-0.710 mm, and optimal fermentation time of 12.0 d and 10.5 d, respectively. Results of the analysis of antioxidant components in the fermentation substrates indicated that the antioxidant components were rich in antioxidant varieties and high in content. The contents of the antioxidant components (triterpenoids, total polyphenols, reducing sugars, anthocyanins, superoxide dismutase, glutathione, vitamin C, and vitamin E) in the full-fermentation substrates were greater than those in the nonfennentation substrates (except for flavonoids in the full-fermentation substrates, which were less than in the nonfennentation substrates). Glutathione was the major antioxidant component in the fermentation substrates, and the glutathione content was the highest. Therefore, the fermentation substrates of G. lucidum can be used to make antioxidant foods. This research contributes to the foundation for developing antioxidant foods based on G. lucidum.

REFERENCES

  1. Vitak TY, Wasser SP, Nevo E, Nevo E, Sybirna NO. , Enzymatic system of antioxidant protection of erythrocytes in diabetic rats treated with medicinal mushrooms Agaricus brasiliensis and Ganoderma lucidum (Agaricomycetes). Int J Med Mushrooms. 2017;19(8):697–708.

  2. Trovato A, Siracusa R, Di PR, Scuto M, Ontario ML, Bua O, Mauro PD, Toscano MA, Petralia CCT, Maiolino L, Serra A, Cuzzocrea S, Calabrese V, Redox modulation of cellular stress response and lipoxin A4 expression by Hericium erinaceus in rat brain: relevance to Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis. Immun Ageing. 2016;53(1):350–8.

  3. Seng CK, Abdullah N, Aminudin N. , Antioxidative and inhibitory effects of the fruiting body of black lingzhi mushroom, Amauroderma rugosum (Agaricomycetes), on LDL oxidation and HMG-CoA reductase activity. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2017;19(9):797–807.

  4. Wong KH, Ng CC, Kanagasabapathy G, Yow YY, Sabaratnam V. , An overview of culinary and medicinal mushrooms in neurodegeneration and neurotrauma research. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2017;19(3):191–202.

  5. Sknepnek A, Pantic M, Matijasevic D, Miletic D, Levic S, Nedovic V, Niksic M. , Novel kombucha beverage from lingzhi or reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, with antibacterial and antioxidant effects. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2018;20(3):243–58.

  6. Liu DB, Gong J, Dai WK, Kang XC, Huang Z, Zhang HM, Liu W, Liu L, Ma JP, Xia ZL, Chen YX, Chen YW, Wang DP, Ni PX, Guo AY, Xiong XY. , The genome of Ganoderma lucidum provide insights into triterpense biosynthesis and wood degradation. PLoS One. 2012;7(5):e36146.

  7. Thyagarajan-Sahu A, Lane B, Sliva D. , Reishimax, mushroom based dietary supplement, inhibits adipocyte differentiation, stimulates glucose uptake and activates AMPK. BMC Complem Altern Med. 2011;11:74–87.

  8. Sandrina AH, Lillian B, Anabela M, Maria JRPQ, Celestino SB, Isabel CFRF, Fruiting body, spores and in vitro produced mycelium of Ganoderma lucidum from Northeast Portugal: a comparative study of the antioxidant potential of phenolic and polysaccharidic extracts. Food Res Int. 2012;46:135–40.

  9. Bishop KS, Kao CH, Xu Y, Glucina MP, Paterson RR, Ferguson LR. , From 2000 years of Ganoderma lucidum to recent developments in nutraceuticals. Phytochemistry. 2015;114:56–65.

  10. Gill BS, Sharma P, Navgeet, Kumar S., Chemical composition and antiproliferative, antioxidant, and proapoptotic effects of fruiting body extracts of the lingzhi or reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Agaricomycetes), from India. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2016;17(7):599–607.

  11. Paterson RRM. , Ganoderma—a therapeutic fungal biofactory. Phytochemistry. 2006;67:1985–2001.

  12. Liegeois C, Lermusieau G, Collin S. , Measuring antioxidant efficiency of wort, malt, and hops against the 2,2-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride-induced oxidation of an aqueous dispersion of linoleic acid. J Agric Food Chem. 2000;48:1129–34.

  13. Wardhani DH, Vázquez JA, Pandiella SS. , Mathematical modeling of the development of antioxidant activity in soybeans fermented with Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus awamori in the solid state. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:540–4.

  14. Cornell JA. , Experiments with mixtures: designs, models, and the analysis of mixture data, 3rd ed. New York (NY): John Wiley and Sons; 2002. pp. 223–85.

  15. Scheffé H. , Experiments with mixtures. J Roy Stat Soc B. 1958;20:344–60.

  16. Pellegrinin RR, Yang M. , Screening of dietary carotenoids and carotenoid-rich fruit extracts for antioxidant activities applying 2,2- azinobis (3-ethylenebenzothiazoline-6-ulfonic) acid radical cation decolonization assay. Method Enzymol. 1999;299:379–89.

  17. Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Rice-Evans C. , Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radic Biol Med. 1999;26:1231–7.

  18. Nunes TP, Martins CG, Behrens JH, Souza KL, Genovese MI, Destro MT, Landgraf M., Radio resistance of Salmonella species and Listeria monocytogenes on minimally processed arugula (Eruca sativa Mill.): effect of irradiation on flavonoid content and acceptability of irradiated produce. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:1264–8.

  19. Habermann E, Imatomi M, Pontes FC, Gualtieri SC. , Antioxidant activity and phenol content of extracts of bark, stems, and young and mature leaves from Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Kunth) O. Berg. Braz J Biol. 2016;76:898–904.

  20. Cai H, Wang FS, Wang LF, Bai Y, Xu L, Yang JS. , Method for determination of content of biological activities constituents ganoderic acid in Ganoderma lucidum. Chinese J Vet Sci. 2001;21(4):381–3.

  21. Boh B, Berovic M, Zhang JS, Lin ZB. , Ganoderma lucidum and its pharmaceutically active compounds. Biotechnol Annu Rev. 2007;13:265–301.

  22. Erenturk S, Gulaboglu MS, Gultekin S. , The effects of cutting and drying medium on the vitamin C content of rosehip during drying. J Food Eng. 2005;68:513–8.

  23. Taipina MS, Lamardo LCA, Rodas MAB, Mastro NL. , The effects of gamma irradiation on the vitamin E content and sensory qualities of pecan nuts (Carya illinoensis). Radiat Phys Chem. 2009;78:611–3.

  24. Fuleki T, Francis FJ. , Quantitative methods for anthocyanins. 1. Extraction and determination of total anthocyanins in cranberries. J Food Sci. 1968;33:72–7.

  25. Dong AW, Xiang Z, Li LJ. , Qualitative and content analysis of red pigment in Parthenocissus tricuspidata plach. J Wuxi Univ Light Ind. 2003;22:99–102.

  26. Chung HY, Sung B, Jung KJ, Zou YN, Yu BP. , The molecular inflammatory process in aging. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2006;8:572–81.

  27. Oomah BD, Mazza G. , Flavonoids and antioxidative activities in buckwheat. J Agric Food Chem. 1996;44:1746–50.

  28. Milbury PE, Chen CY, Dolnikowski GG, Blumberg JB. , Determination of flavonoids and phenolics and their distribution in almonds. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:5027–33.

  29. Song TY, Yen GC. , Antioxidant properties of Antrodia camphorata in submerged culture. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50:3322–7.

  30. Miller GL. , Use of dinitrosalicylic acid reagent for determination of reducing sugar. Anal Chem. 1959;31:426–8.

  31. Jagota SK, Dani HM. , A new colorimetric technique for the estimation of vitamin C using folin phenol reagent. Anal Biochem. 1982;127:178–82.

  32. IAL. , Analytical Norms. Physical and chemical methods for the analysis of foods, 4th ed. São Paulo: IAL; 2005. pp. 645–82.

  33. Beyer WFJ, Fridovich I. , Assaying for superoxide dismutase activity: some large consequences of minor changes in conditions. Anal Biochem. 1987;161:559–66.

  34. Han KH, Tomoko KO, Seo JM, Kim SJ, Sasaki K, Shimada KI, Fukushima M. , Characterisation of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins of adzuki bean extracts and their antioxidant activity. J Funct Foods. 2015;14:692–701.

  35. Qiao AM, Wang YH, Xiang LM, Zhang ZX, He XJ. , Novel triterpenoids isolated from hawthorn berries functioned as antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. J Funct Foods. 2015;13:308–13.

  36. Mónica LT, Rosa PC, Caridad R, Susana C, Gustavo B. , Simultaneous induction of SOD, glutathione reductase, GSH, and ascorbate in liver and kidney correlates with survival during aging. Free Radic Biol Med. 1993;15:133–42.

  37. Forkmann G, Martens S. , Metabolic engineering and applications of flavonoids. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2001;12:155–60.

  38. Shashi BM, Sudip KS, Gurudas P. , Crude triterpenoid saponins. Phytochemistry. 1988;27:3037–67.

  39. Fulgencio SC, José S, Isabel G. , Intake and bioaccessibility of total polyphenols in a whole diet. Food Chem. 2007;101:492–501.

  40. Lee AT, Cerami A. , In vitro and in vivo reactions of nucleic acids with reducing sugars. Mutat Res. 1990;238:185–91.

  41. Jo WS, Park HN, Cho DH, Yoo YB, Park SC. , Detection of extracellular enzyme activities in Ganoderma neo-japonicum. Mycobiology. 2011;39:118–20.

  42. Sullivan J. Anthocyanin. CP , Newsl. 1998;27:26–8.

  43. Kong JM, Chia LS, Goh NK, Chia TF, Brouillard R. , Analysis and biological activities of anthocyanins. Phytochemistry. 2003;64:923–33.

  44. Hercberg S, Galan P, Preziosi P, Alfarez MJ, Vazquez C. , The potential role of antioxidant vitamins in preventing cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Nutrition. 1998;6:513–20.


Articles with similar content:

Submerged Culture of Grifola gargal and G. sordulenta (Higher Basidiomycetes) from Argentina as a Source of Mycelia with Antioxidant Activity
International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, Vol.17, 2015, issue 1
Nestor Raul Curvetto, Pablo Daniel Postemsky
Nutritional Composition of Three Domesticated Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms: Oudemansiella sudmusida, Lentinus squarrosulus, and Tremella aurantialba
International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, Vol.17, 2015, issue 1
Hui Cao, Yan Yang, Jing-Song Zhang, Chuan-hua Li, Shuai Zhou, Zhong Zhang, Qing-jiu Tang Tang
Submerged Cultivation of Mycelium with High Ergothioneine Content from the Culinary-Medicinal Golden Oyster Mushroom, Pleurotus citrinopileatus (Higher Basidiomycetes)
International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, Vol.17, 2015, issue 8
Sheng-Yang Wang, Shin-Yi Lin, Jeng-Leun Mau, Shih-Chang Chien
Polysaccharides and Antioxidants from Culinary-Medicinal White Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Agaricomycetes), Waste Biomass
International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, Vol.20, 2018, issue 8
Jasenka Piljac-Zegarac, Vlatka Petravić-Tominac, Senka Djakovic, Vesna Zechner-Krpan, Sinisa Srecec, Aleksandra Vojvodic Cebin, Omoanghe S. Isikhuemhen
Effect of Different Proportions of Agrowaste on Cultivation Yield and Nutritional Composition of the Culinary-Medicinal Jelly Mushroom Auricularia polytricha (Higher Basidiomycetes)
International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, Vol.19, 2017, issue 4
Kuan-Jzen Wu, Chiu-Yeh Wu, Zeng-Chin Liang, Hsin-Der Shih, Chih-Hung Liang