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International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms

Impact factor: 1.357

ISSN Print: 1521-9437
ISSN Online: 1940-4344

International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms

DOI: 10.1615/IntJMedMushr.v7.i12.280
pages 305-332

Species Diversity of the Genus Psilocybe (Basidiomycotina, Agaricales, Strophariaceae) in the World Mycobiota, with Special Attention to Hallucinogenic Properties

ABSTRACT

An exhaustive world revision of all names considered in the genus Psilocybe s.l. is presented, of which the hallucinogenic species were treated with special emphasis. Seven hundred eighteen names related to Psilocybe were found reported in the bibliography, of which only 227 are accepted taxa in Psilocybe. The concept of the genus followed here is that of Guzman 1983; therefore Hypholoma, Melanotus, and Stropharia were excluded. Moreover, 53 species of Psathyrella, many times related with Psilocybe, were also excluded. The hallucinogenic species are 144, which are distributed in all the continents, of which Latin America (including the Caribbae), has the top, with more than 50 species. There are only 22 species in Canada and the US, while Mexico is the country with the higest number in the world, with 53 species. Europe has only 16 species, Asia 15, Africa 4, and Australia and eastern islands 19. Some Psilocybe species are common in several countries or regions, as are P. cubensis and P. subcubensis in all the tropics; P. coprophila in many temperate and tropical regions; P. argentina in several high mountains or in the Austral and Boreal regions; and P. fimetaria and P. semilanceata in Europe, Canada, and the US, but unknown in Mexico.