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International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
IF: 1.211 5-Year IF: 1.394 SJR: 0.433 SNIP: 0.661 CiteScore™: 1.38

ISSN Print: 1521-9437
ISSN Online: 1940-4344

International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms

DOI: 10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.v17.i4.10
pages 321-330

Evaluation of the Antigenotoxic Effects of the Royal Sun Mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis (Higher Basidiomycetes) in Human Lymphocytes Treated with Thymol in the Comet Assay

Milena Radakovic
Department of Biology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
Ninoslav Djelic
Department of Biology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
Jevrosima Stevanovic
Department of Biology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
Marina Sokovic
Department of Plant Physiology, Institute for Biological Research "Sinisa Stankovic", University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
Dejan Radovic
Institute of Zoology, Faculty of Biology, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
Leonardus Johannes Lambertus Donatus Van Griensven
Plant Research International, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, the Netherlands
Zoran Stanimirovic
Department of Biology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia

ABSTRACT

The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the possible protective activity of Agaricus brasiliensis (=A. blazei sensu Murrill) ethanol extract against thymol-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Before we studied the possible interaction of thymol and A. brasiliensis extract, each component was tested in the comet assay. Thymol significantly increased DNA damage in human lymphocytes at higher concentrations (20, 50, 100, 150, and 200 µg/mL), whereas no genotoxic effect of A. brasiliensis ethanol extract was observed. In simultaneous treatment with thymol (200 µg/mL) and A. brasiliensis ethanol extract (50, 100, 150, and 200 µg/mL), the latter failed to reduce a thymol-induced DNA damaging effect regardless of the applied concentrations. To confirm that thymol induces DNA damage via reactive oxygen species, we performed cotreatment with quercetin. Cotreatment with quercetin (100 and 500 µmol/L) significantly reduced DNA damage caused by thymol (200 µg/mL), indicating that thymol exhibits genotoxicity mainly through induction of reactive oxygen species.