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International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms

Impact factor: 0.639

ISSN Print: 1521-9437
ISSN Online: 1940-4344

International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms

DOI: 10.1615/IntJMedMushr.v4.i3.10
11 pages

Anticancer and Hypoglycemic Effects of Polysaccharides in Edible and Medicinal Maitake Mushroom [Grifola frondosa (Dicks.: Fr.) S. F. Gray]

Sensuke Konno
Department of Urology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA
Shahrad Aynehchi
Department of Urology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA
Daniele J. Dolin
Department of Urology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA
Alec M. Schwartz
Department of Urology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA
Muhammad S. Choudhury
Department of Urology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA
Hiroshi Tazaki
Department of Urology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA

ABSTRACT

An investigation was carried out on the possible anticancer activity and hypoglycemic action of bioactive polysaccharides of Higher Basidiomycetes maitake mushroom [Grifola frondosa (Dicks.: Fr.) S. F. Gray], namely, D-fraction and SX-fraction, on human prostate cancer PC-3 cells in vitro and type 2 diabetic patients. D-fraction at і480 mg/mL was highly cytotoxic to prostatic cancer PC-3 cells, inducing nearly complete cell death (>95%) in 24 hours. The combination of a low concentration (60 [mg/mL) of D-fraction (with no cytotoxic effect) and vitamin С (200 mM) was also found to be as effective as 480 mg/mL D-fraction alone, suggesting a synergistic potentiation of D-fraction with vitamin C. An anticancer agent carmustine (BCNU), capable of inducing a -50% reduction in cell viability by itself (50 mM), then showed its enhanced cytotoxicity with D-fraction (60 mg/mL), resulting in a ~90% cell viability reduction. In clinical studies on hypoglycemic effect of SX-fraction, 5 patients with type 2 diabetes under oral medications demonstrated improved glycemic levels with G. frondosa polysacchande caplets (MFCs) containing active SX-fraction. One patient showed complete glycemic control with MFCs and is currently free of medications, whereas others showed over 30% decline in their serum glucose levels with MFCs in 2 to 4 weeks. Therefore, polysaccharides of G. frondosa may have therapeutic implications in the effective treatments of prostate cancer (anticancer activity) and type 2 diabetes (hypoglycemic action).