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International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms

Impact factor: 1.357

ISSN Print: 1521-9437
ISSN Online: 1940-4344

International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms

DOI: 10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.v19.i1.10
pages 1-16

Enhanced Release of Immunostimulating β-1,3- Glucan by Autodigestion of the Lingzhi Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma lingzhi (Agaricomycetes)

Yuina Ishimoto
Laboratory for Immunopharmacology of Microbial Products, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Hachioji, Tokyo, Japan
Ken-Ichi Ishibashi
Laboratory for Immunopharmacology of Microbial Products, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Science, Tokyo, Japan
Daisuke Yamanaka
Laboratory for Immunopharmacology of Microbial Products, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Hachioji, Tokyo, Japan
Yoshiyuki Adachi
Laboratory of Immunopharmacology of Microbial Products, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Science, Tokyo, Japan
Hisatomi Ito
Beauty Care Products Division, Nagase & Co. Ltd., Nishi-ku, Kobe, Japan
Kentaro Igami
Beauty Care Products Division, Nagase & Co. Ltd., Nishi-ku, Kobe, Japan
Toshitsugu Miyazaki
Beauty Care Products Division, Nagase & Co. Ltd., Nishi-ku, Kobe, Japan
Naohito Ohno
Laboratory for Immunopharmacology of Microbial Products, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Science, Tokyo, Japan

ABSTRACT

Ganoderma lingzhi is a widely used medicinal mushroom that has antioxidative effects, ameliorates insulin resistance, and improves quality of life in patients with metabolic syndrome. Potentiation of immunity is also a major function of G. lingzhi, and this has been applied in patients with cancer. Supplementing G. lingzhi into foods reduced the metastasis of cancer cells. β-l,3-glucan is an important bioactive component of G. lingzhi. In this study we enhanced the solubilization ofimmunostimulating β-l,3-glucan by autodigestion of G. lingzhi. Fruiting bodies of G. lingzhi were disrupted and suspended in distilled water, then autodigested at 37°C for 24 hours. The resulting suspension was dried by spray drying. To assess the solubilization of β-l,3-glucan by autodigestion, cold and hot water extracts and sodium hydroxide extracts of G. lingzhi were prepared with and without autodigestion. Sodium hydroxide extracts were neutralized and dialyzed against distilled water. The resulting soluble and precipitated fractions were collected. Chemical, biochemical, and immunochemical characteristics of the extracts were compared. The yields of cold water extracts of autodigested and native G. lingzhi were significantly lower than the other extracts. Glucose was the major sugar component of the hot water extract, cold alkali extract (CAS), and the cold hydroxide extract insoluble in neutral aqueous condition (CASP) of the autodigested and native G. lingzhi. Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis revealed branched β-glucans in the hot water extract and CAS of the autodigested and native G. lingzhi. By contrast, the CASP of the autodigested and native G. lingzhi comprised mainly mixtures of linear α-l,3-glucans and linear β-l,3-glucans. Immunostimulation by β-l,3-glucan was examined by limulus factor G activation, dectin-1 binding, and anti-β-glucan antibody binding. Comparing relative activity, immunostimulating β-l,3-glucan was detected in the hot water extract, rather than the CAS, of autodigested and native G. lingzhi. Immunostimulating of β-glucan was also detected in the cold water extract of the autodigested G. lingzhi. These findings demonstrate that autodigestion is a useful processing protocol for enhancing the usefulness of G. lingzhi as a functional food.