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Critical Reviews™ in Neurobiology
SJR: 0.121

ISSN Print: 0892-0915
ISSN Online: 2375-0014

Archives: Volume 10, 1996 to Volume 20, 2008

Critical Reviews™ in Neurobiology

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevNeurobiol.v12.i4.10
pages 267-303

The Neurobiology of Opiate Reinforcement

Toni S. Shippenberg
Integrative Neuroscience Unit, Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory, Intramural Research Program, NIDA, NIH, 5500 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, Maryland, 21224
Gregory I. Elmer
Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, P.O. Box 21247, Baltimore, Maryland 21228

ABSTRACT

This article provides a basic introduction into two commonly used behavioral paradigms used for the assessment of the reinforcing and rewarding effects of drugs in experimental animals. Behavioral as well as neurochemical data regarding the neural basis of opiate reward are then critically reviewed in order to evaluate the neuroanatomical and neurochemical substrates mediating the primary and conditioned reinforcing effects of opiates as well as current hypotheses of drug-induced reward and aversion.


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