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Critical Reviews™ in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
インパクトファクター: 2.9 5年インパクトファクター: 3.72 SJR: 0.736 SNIP: 0.551 CiteScore™: 2.43

ISSN 印刷: 0743-4863
ISSN オンライン: 2162-660X

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Critical Reviews™ in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevTherDrugCarrierSyst.2014010102
pages 273-303

Mucosal Immunization: A Review of Strategies and Challenges

Hinal Patel
Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Technology & Engineering, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Kalabhavan, Vadodara - 390 001, Gujarat State, INDIA
Chetan Yewale
Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Technology & Engineering, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Kalabhavan, Vadodara - 390 001, Gujarat State, INDIA
Mohan N. Rathi
Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Kalabhavan, Vadodara, Gujarat State, India
Ambikanandan Misra
Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Post Box No. 51, Kalabhavan, Vadodara 390001 Gujarat, India

要約

The vast majority of pathogens enter the human body via the mucosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and urogenital tracts, where they initiate mucosal infections that lead to systemic infections. Despite strong evidence that a good mucosal immune response can effectively prevent systemic infection too, only a few mucosal vaccines are available due to their low efficiency. Most current immunization techniques involve systemic injection, but they are ineffective to induce immunization at a mucosal site. It is a great challenge to target a mucosal compartment that can induce protective immunity at mucosal sites as well as systemic sites. A better understanding of cellular and molecular factors involved in the regulation of mucosal immunity will aid in the design of safer mucosal vaccines that elicit the desired protective immunity against infectious diseases such as HIV. The development of mucosal vaccines, whether for prevention of infectious diseases or for immunotherapy, requires antigen delivery and adjuvant systems that can effectively present vaccine or immunotherapeutic antigens to the mucosal sites. In this review, we examine the mechanism of mucosal protection, induction of mucosal immune response, types of vaccines, current status of marketed vaccines, and novel strategies for protection against infections and for treatment of inflammatory disorders. Additionally, we offer perspectives on future challenges and research directions.


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