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Critical Reviews™ in Biomedical Engineering
SJR: 0.207 SNIP: 0.376 CiteScore™: 0.79

ISSN 印刷: 0278-940X
ISSN オンライン: 1943-619X

Critical Reviews™ in Biomedical Engineering

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevBiomedEng.v32.i56.10
48 pages

Fracture Mechanics of Cortical Bone Tissue: A Hierarchical Perspective

Ozan Akkus
Orthopaedic Bioengineering Laboratory, Department of Bioengineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio, USA
Yener N. Yeni
Bone and Joint Center, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan, USA
Nicholas Wasserman
Orthopaedic Bioengineering Laboratory, Department of Bioengineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio, USA

要約

The performance of bone tissue in the presence of flaws is a highly remarkable one. Bone tissue is the outcome of an adaptive evolutionary process; thus, insight into the mechanisms by which it fails would provide valuable information not only for development of mechanically superior biomimetic materials but also for development of treatment modalities to prevent debilitating bone fractures. Clinically, fractures of skeletal organs occur as a result of aging, disease, overuse, and trauma. Fracture mechanics, a sub-discipline of solid mechanics that investigates the performance of cracked materials, has been employed extensively in characterizing the mechanisms by which bone tissue fractures. At present the fracture mechanisms at the macroscale are better characterized than at the microscale. On the other hand, a mechanistic understanding of damage evolution at the submicroscopic scale is largely limited to postulations with little experimental insight. The challenge of skeletal fragility will be dealt with more efficiently with deeper understanding of the fracture process at each hierarchical size scale. The most recent review on this subject matter was a decade ago, and there have been numerous developments in the fracture mechanics of bone since then. This review recaps the existing literature with an emphasis on the hierarchical nature of the fracture process in bone, entailing the supramolecular, microscopic, and macroscopic scales.