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Critical Reviews™ in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
インパクトファクター: 2.156 5年インパクトファクター: 2.255 SJR: 0.649 SNIP: 0.599 CiteScore™: 3

ISSN 印刷: 1045-4403
ISSN オンライン: 2162-6502

Critical Reviews™ in Eukaryotic Gene Expression

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevEukarGeneExpr.v9.i3-4.20
pages 175-182

Evolution of Transcriptional Control from Prokaryotic Beginnings to Eukaryotic Complexities

Lili Huang
Dana Farber Cancer Institute, 44 Binney St., Boston, MA 02115
Rong J. Guan
Dana Farber Cancer Institute, 44 Binney St., Boston, MA 02115
Arthur B. Pardee
Dana Farber Cancer Institute, 44 Binney St., Boston, MA 02115

要約

Mechanisms for regulating gene transcription became increasingly complex as organisms evolved. In prokaryotes the relatively simple mechanism of repression is based on a few proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences in a ligand-dependent fashion. In eukaryotes large complexes that include ligand binding proteins regulate transcription. Lower eukaryotes developed an additional level of control based on protein complexes that include modifying enzymes. The DNA/histone complex, in combination with gene-specific transcriptional factors, is the basis of gene regulation in eukaryotes. Higher eukaryotes took regulation a level further by methylating CpGs in promoter sequences of DNA, thereby allowing binding of histone deacetylases and inhibiting transcription. Finally, long-lasting "superrepression" provides another mechanism for coordinate transcriptional regulation of large blocks of genes.


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