ライブラリ登録: Guest
Begell Digital Portal Begellデジタルライブラリー 電子書籍 ジャーナル 参考文献と会報 リサーチ集
International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
インパクトファクター: 1.423 5年インパクトファクター: 1.525 SJR: 0.431 SNIP: 0.661 CiteScore™: 1.38

ISSN 印刷: 1521-9437
ISSN オンライン: 1940-4344

International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms

DOI: 10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.v21.i7.80
pages 713-724

Characterization of Anti−Salmonella typhi Compounds from Medicinal Mushroom Extracts from Zimbabwe

Tsungai Reid
Department of Biochemistry, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe
Chenjerayi Kashangura
Kutsaga Research Station, Harare, Zimbabwe
Catherine Chidewe
Department of Biochemistry, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe
Mudadi A. Benhura
Department of Biochemistry, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe
Babill Stray-Pedersen
Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway
Takafira Mduluza
Department of Biochemistry, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe; School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa


Antibiotic resistance has become a global concern and threatens the clinical efficacy of many drugs, leading to increased screening of several sources of potential antimicrobial substances. Mushrooms have long been recognized as a valuable source of nutritive and pharmacologically active compounds. Our previous studies showed that the acetone, ethanol, methanol, and cold water crude extracts of various mushrooms−Amanita and Cantharellus species, Ganoderma lucidum, and Lactarius kabansus−exhibited high antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhi. The objective of this study was to isolate, characterize, and identify antibacterial compounds from these crude mushroom extracts. The crude extracts were separated by preparative thin-layer chromatography. Fractions (n = 99) were obtained and screened for antimicrobial activity against S. typhi by using the MTT assay. Of the isolated components, 13 exhibited high inhibitory activity against the growth of S. typhi, with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations ranging from 206 to 619 µg/mL. Some of the highly potent antibacterial compounds were identified by using liquid chromatography−mass spectrometry. Terpenoids (lucidenic acid M and cavipetin D), a phospholipid (C16 sphinganine), and fatty acid amines (stearamide and palmitic amide) were some of the compounds found to be responsible for the antibacterial activity observed. The importance of local mushrooms as sources of antibacterial compounds was revealed. The high inhibitory activity of some mushroom extracts strongly suggests that the mushrooms contain compounds that have great potential for use in developing therapeutic agents against infections caused by S. typhi.


  1. Turkoglu A, Duru ME, Mercan N. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Laetiporus sulphurecis (Bull.) Murrill. Food Chem. 2007;101(1):267-73.

  2. Wong FC, Chai TT, Tan SL, Yong AL. Evaluation of bioactivities and phenolic content of selected edible mushrooms in Malaysia. Trop J Pharm Res. 2013;12(6):1011-6.

  3. Reardon S. Hidden African typhoid epidemic traced to drug-resistant bacteria: genetic analysis suggests that virulent strain of Salmonella typhi emerged in south Asia 25-30 years ago. Nature News. https://www.nature.com/news/hidden-african-ty- phoid-epidemic-traced-to-drug-resistant-bacteria-1.17514. Published May 11,2015.

  4. Topley JM. Mild typhoid fever. Arch Dis Child. 1986;61:164-7.

  5. Antillon M, Warren JL, Crawford FW, Weinberger DM, Kurum E, Pak GD, Marks F, Pitzer VE. The burden of typhoid fever in low- and middle-income countries: a meta-regression approach. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11(2):e0005376.

  6. Rowe B, Ward LR, Threlfall EJ. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella typhi: a worldwide epidemic. Clin Infect Dis. 1997;24(1): 106-9.

  7. Polonsky JA, Martinez-Pino I, Nackers F, Chonzi P, Manangazira P, Van Herp M, Maes P, Porten K, Luquero FJ. Descriptive epidemiology of typhoid fever during an epidemic in Harare, Zimbabwe, 2012. PLoS One. 2014;9(12):e114702.

  8. Kozarski M, Klaus A, Vunduk J, Zizak Z, Niksic M, Jakovljevic D, Vrvic MM, Van Griensven LJLD. Nutraceutical properties of the methanolic extract of edible mushroom Cantharellus cibarius (Fries): primary mechanisms. Food Funct. 2015;6(6):1875-86.

  9. Wasser SP. Medicinal mushroom science: history, current status, future trends, and unsolved problems. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2010;12(1):1-16.

  10. Finimundy TC, Dillon AJP, Henriques JAP, Ely MR. A review on general nutritional compounds and pharmacological properties of the Lentinula edodes mushroom. Food Nutr Sci. 2014;5(12):1095-105.

  11. Sakthivigneswari G, Dharmaraj K. Studies on analysis of few secondary metabolites and antimicrobial activity of Ganoderma lucidum. J Pharm Res. 2013;1(8):781-6.

  12. Gan CH, Narul AB, Asmah R. Antioxidant analysis of different types of edible mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus brasiliensis). Int Food Res J. 2013;20(3):1095-102.

  13. Durgo K, Koncar M, Komes D, Belscak-Cvitanovic A, Franekic J, Jakopovich I, Jakopovich N, Jakopovich B. Cytotoxicity of blended versus single medicinal mushroom extracts on human cancer cell lines: contribution of polyphenol and polysaccharide content. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2013;15(5):435-48.

  14. Adotey G, Quarcoo A, Holliday JC, Fofie S, Saaka B. Effect of immunomodulating and antiviral agent of medicinal mushrooms (immune assist 24/7) on CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts of HIV-infected patients. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2011;13(2): 109-13.

  15. Younis AM, Wu FS, Shikh HHE. Antimicrobial activity of extracts of the oyster culinary medicinal mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (higher Basidiomycetes) and identification of a new antimicrobial compound. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2015;17(6):579-90.

  16. Keypour S, Riahi H, Moradali MF, Rafati H. Investigation of the antibacterial activity of a chloroform extract of ling zhi or reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (W. Curt.: Fr.) P. Karst. (Aphyllophoromycetidae), from Iran. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2008;10(4):345-9.

  17. Geethangili M, Ra YK, Tzeng YN. Development and validation of HPLC-DAD separation method for determination of bioactive anthrocon medicinal mushroom Antrodia camphorate. Int J Appl Sci Eng. 2013;11(2):195-201.

  18. Kumaran S, Pandurangan AK, Shenbhagaraman R, Esa NM. Isolation and characterization of lectin from the artist's conk medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma applanatum (Agaricomycetes), and evaluation of its antiproliferative activity in HT-29 colon cancer cells. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2017;19(8):675-84.

  19. Elisashvili V Submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms: bioprocesses and products (review). Int J Med Mushrooms. 2012;14(3):211-39.

  20. Chang ST, Wasser SP. The role of culinary-medicinal mushrooms on human welfare with a pyramid model for human health. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2012;14:95-134.

  21. Chang ST, Wasser SP. Current and future research trends in agricultural and biomedical applications of medicinal mushrooms and mushroom products (review). Int J Med Mushrooms. 2018;20(11):1034-48.

  22. Shen HS, Shao S, Chen JC, Zhou T. Antimicrobials from mushrooms for assuring food safety. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Safi 2017;16(2):316-29.

  23. Duru ME, Qayan GT. Biologically active terpenoids from mushroom origin: a review. Rec Nat Prod. 2015;9:456-83.

  24. Taofiq O, Heleno SA, Calhelha RC, Alves MJ, Barros L, Barreiro MF, Gonzalez-Paramas AM, Ferreira IC. Development of mushroom-based cosmeceutical formulations with anti-inflammatory, ant-tyrosinase, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties. Molecules. 2016;21(10). pii: E1372.

  25. Doughari JH. Phytochemicals: extraction methods, basic structures and mode of action as potential chemotherapeutic agents. In: Rao V, ed. Phytochemicals: A global perspective of their role in nutrition and health. London: IntechOpen; 2012. https://www.intechopen.com/books/phytochemicals-a-global-perspective-of-their-role-in-nutrition-and-health.

  26. Altemimi A, Lakhssassi N, Baharlouei A, Watson DG, Lightfoot DA. Review: phytochemicals: extraction, isolation and identification of bioactive compounds from plant extracts. Plants. 2017;6:1-23.

  27. Ingle KP, Deshmukh AG, Padole DA, Dudhare MS, Moharil MR, Khelurkar VC. Phytochemicals: extraction methods, identification and detection of bioactive compounds from plant extracts. J Pharmacogn Phytochem. 2017;6:32-6.

  28. Boligon AA, Athayde ML. Importance of HPLC in analysis of plants extracts. Austin Chromatogr. 2014;1(3):2.

  29. Choma IM, Jesionek W. TLC-direct bioautography as a high throughput method for detection of antimicrobials in plants. Chromatography. 2015;2:225-38.

  30. Buruleanu LC, Radulescu C, Georgescu AA, Danet FA, Olteany RL, Nicolescu CM, Dulama ID. Statistical characterization of the phytochemical characteristics of edible mushroom extract. Anal Lett. 2018;51:1039-59.

  31. Bharwaj A, Gupta P, Kumar N, Mishra J, Kumar A, Rakhee, Misra K. Lingzhi or reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Agarocomycetes), inhibits Candida biofilms: a metabolomics approach. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2017;19(8):685-96.

  32. Robles AJ, Peng J, Hartley RM, Lee B, Mooberry SL. Melampodium leucanthum, a source of cytotoxic sesquiterpenes with antimitotic activities. J Nat Prod. 2015;78:388-95.

  33. Pyka A. Detection progress of selected drugs in TLC. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:732078.

  34. Sasidharan S, Chen Y, Saravanan D, Sundram KM, Latha LY Extraction, isolation and characterization of bioactive compounds from plants' extracts. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2011;8(1):1-10.

  35. Reid T, Kashangura C, Chidewe C, Benhura, MA, Mduluza T. Antibacterial properties of wild edible and non-edible mushrooms found in Zimbabwe. Afr J Microbiol Res. 2016;10:977-84.

  36. Sharp C. A pocket guide to mushrooms in Zimbabwe: Some common species. Bulawayo: Zimbabwe Directory Publishers; 2011.

  37. Sharp C. A pocket guide to mushrooms in Zimbabwe: Other common species. 2nd ed. Bulawayo: Zimbabwe Directory Publishers; 2014.

  38. Ryvarden L, Piearce GD, Masuka AJ. An introduction to the larger fungi of South Central Africa. Harare: Baobab Books; 1994.

  39. Gargano ML, van Griensven LJLD, Isikhuemhen OS, Lindequist U, Venturella G, Wasser SP, Zervakis GI. Medicinal mushrooms: valuable biological resources of high exploitation potential. Plant Biosyst. 2017;151(3):548-65.

  40. Chen XQ, Chen LX, Zhao J, Tang YP, Li SP Nortriterpenoids from the fruiting bodies of the mushroom Ganoderma resinaceum. Molecules. 2017;22(7). pii: E1073.

  41. Hsu CL, Yen GC. Ganoderic acid and lucidenic acid (triterpenoid). Enzymes. 2014;36:33-56.

  42. Shen JW, Ruan Y, Ma BJ. Diterpenoids of macromycetes. J Basic Microbiol. 2009;49:242-55.

  43. Velisek J, Cejpek K. Pigments of higher fungi: a review. Czech J Food Sci. 2011;29:87-102.

  44. Gewali MB. Aspects of traditional medicine in Nepal. Institute of Natural Medicine, University of Toyama, 2008.

  45. Ahmed S, Liu H, Ahmad A, Akraw W, Abdelrahman EKN, Ran F, Ou W, Dong S, Cai Q, Zhang Q, Li X, Hu S, Hu X. Characterization of anti-bacterial compounds from the seed coat of Chinese windmill palm tree (Trachycarpus fortunei). Front Microbiol. 2017;8:1894.

  46. Idan SA, Al-Marzoqi AH, Hameed IH. Spectral analysis and anti-bacterial activity of methanolic fruit extract of Citrullus colocynthis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Afr J Biotechnol. 2015;14:3131-58.

  47. Fischer CL, Drake DR, Dawson DV, Blanchette DR, Brogden KA, Wertza PW. Antibacterial activity of sphingoid bases and fatty acids against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56:1157-61.