Inscrição na biblioteca: Guest
Portal Digital Begell Biblioteca digital da Begell eBooks Diários Referências e Anais Coleções de pesquisa
Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants
SJR: 0.145 SNIP: 0.491 CiteScore™: 0.89

ISSN Imprimir: 1050-6934
ISSN On-line: 1940-4379

Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants

DOI: 10.1615/JLongTermEffMedImplants.2020034807
pages 311-316

Polytrauma: Treatment, Cost, and Associated Factors

Dimitra Petroudi
Registered Nurse, Attikon University Hospital of Athens, Athens, Greece
I. Tsagkaris
National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Department of Critical Care, Athens, Greece
Dimitrios Mastrokalos
National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Athens, Greece
I. Galanopoulos
Orthopaedic Surgeon, Thriasio General Hospital of Athens, Athens, Greece
P. Galanis
RN, PhD, National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, Department of Public Health, Athens, Greece
P. Papagelopoulos
National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Athens, Greece
V. Kontogeorgakos
National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Athens, Greece


Trauma is a multifactor problem with economic, social, and political burdens. In this article, we estimate its economic extension. This 3-yr study includes 69 patients above 14 yr of age, who experienced multiple traumatic injuries. We review their economic impact on the National Health System of Greece. Mean patient age is 38.91 yr, and most are male (85.5%), nonsmoking (69.6%), and without open fractures (78.3%). As a result of their injuries, most patients (76.8%) stayed in the intensive care unit (ICU), underwent surgery (76.8%), were transfused (68.1%), and became infected (63.8%). Mean cost was 16,365.65€, median cost 10,399.07€, minimum value 554.17€, and maximum value 89,243.52€. Of the 69 patients, 12 died. The number of polytrauma patients is relatively small compared to the total amount of patients in hospital care, but their impact on health services is very high. Patients admitted to the ICU are at great risk of infection, which can almost triple financial cost and increase hospital stay.


  1. World Health Organization (WHO). Guidelines for trauma quality improvement programmes; 2009. Available from: guidelines/en/. .

  2. El-Menyar A, Parchani A, Peralta R, Zarour A, Al-Thani H, Al-Hassani A, Abdelrahman H, Arumugam S. Frequency, causes and pattern of abdominal trauma: A 4-year descriptive analysis. J Emergencies Trauma Shock. 2015;8(4):193. .

  3. Lovric Z. Definition of polytrauma: Discussion on the objective definition based on quantitative estimation of multiply injured patients during wartime. Injury. 2015;46:24-6 .

  4. Guerado E, Bertrand M, Valdes L, Cruz E, Cano J. Resus-citation of polytrauma patients: The management of massive skeletal bleeding. Open Orthopaed J. 2015;9:283-95. .

  5. Butcher N, Enninghorst N, Sisak K, Balogh Z. The definition of polytrauma. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2013;74(3):884-9. .

  6. Sheikhghomi S, Rahimi-Movaghar V, Jafarpour S, Saadat S. Epidemiology and short-term mortality in traumatic patients admitted to Shariati Hospital in Iran between 2012 and 2013. Chinese J Traumatol. 2015;18(5):275-8. .

  7. Champion H, Copes W, Sacco W, Lawnick M, Keast S, Frey C. The major trauma outcome study. J Trauma Injury Infect Crit Care. 1990;30(11):1356-65. .

  8. Peng J, Wheeler K, Shi J, Groner JI, Haley KJ, Xiang H. Trauma with injury severity score of 75: Are these unsurvivable injuries? PLoS One. 2015;10(7):e0134821. .

  9. Geissler R, Koters C, Franz D, Buddendick H, Borowski M, Juhra C, Lange M, Bunzemeier H, Roeder N, Sibrowski W, Raschke M, Schlenke P. Utilisation of blood components in trauma surgery: A single-centre, retrospective analysis before and after the implementation of an educative PBM Initiative. Transfus Med Hemother. 2015;42(2):83-9. .

  10. Rosenthal V, Maki D, Graves N. The International Noso-comial Infection Control Consortium (INICC): Goals and objectives, description of surveillance methods, and operational activities. Am J Infect Contr. 2008;36(9):1-12. .

  11. Garner J, Jarvis W, Emori T, Horan T, Hughes J. CDC Definitions for nosocomial infections, 1988. Am J Infect Contr. 1988;16(3):128-40. .

  12. Horan T, Andrus M, Dudeck M. CDC/NHSN Surveillance definition of health care-associated infection and criteria for specific types of infections in the acute care setting. Am J Infect Contr. 2008;36(5):309-32. .

  13. Pillai J, Yazicioglu C, Moeng S, Rangaka T, Monareng T, Jayakrishnan R, Veller M, Pinkus D. Prevalence and patterns of infection in critically ill trauma patients admitted to the trauma ICU, South Africa. J Infect Develop Countries. 2015;9(07):736. .

  14. Chiara O, Cimbanassi S, Pitidis A, Vesconi S. Preventable trauma deaths: From panel review to population-based studies. World J Emerg Surg. 2006;1:12. .

  15. Moon J, Seo B, Jang J, Lee J, Moon H. Evaluation of probability of survival using trauma and injury severity score method in severe neurotrauma patients. J Korean Neurosurg Soc. 2013;54(1):42. .

  16. Freitas A, Franzon O. Lactate as predictor of mortality in polytrauma. Arquivos Brasileiros Cirurgia Digestiva. 2015;28(3):163-6. .

  17. Sikand M, Williams K, White C, Moran C. The financial cost of treating polytrauma: Implications for tertiary referral centres in the United Kingdom. Injury. 2005;36(6):733-7. .

  18. Halpern N, Bettes L, Greenstein R. Federal and nationwide intensive care units and healthcare costs: 1986-1992. Crit Care Med. 1994;22(12):2001-7. .

  19. Giannoudis P, Kanakaris N. The unresolved issue of health economics and polytrauma: The UK perspective. Injury. 2008;39(7):705-9. .

  20. Bidgoli H, Bogg L, Hasselberg M. Pre-hospital trauma care resources for road traffic injuries in a middle-income country-A province based study on need and access in Iran. Injury. 2011;42(9):879-84. .

  21. Kuhls D, Malone D, McCarter R, Napolitano L. Predictors of mortality in adult trauma patients: The physiologic trauma score is equivalent to the trauma and injury severity score. J Am College Surg. 2002;194(6):695-704. .

  22. Kucukdurmaz F, Alijanipour P. Current concepts in orthopedic management of multiple trauma. Open Orthopaed J. 2015;9:275-82. .

  23. Hiza E, Gottschalk M, Umpierrez E, Bush P, Reisman W. Effect of a dedicated orthopaedic advanced practice provider in a level I trauma center. J Orthopaed Trauma. 2015;29(7):225-30. .

Articles with similar content:

Can Initial Hematocrit Predict Blood Transfusions, Hospital Cost, and Mortality in Polytrauma Patients?
Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants, Vol.30, 2020, issue 2
I. Tsagkaris, P. Papagelopoulos, Dimitrios Mastrokalos, V. Kontogeorgakos, Dimitra Petroudi
Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants, Vol.28, 2018, issue 2
Tsun Yee Law, Zachary Hubbard, Samuel Rosas, Martin Roche, Spencer Summers, Karim Sabeh, Jennifer Kurowicki
Excellent Early Outcomes of the First 100 Cruciate-Retaining TriathlonTM Total Knee Arthroplasties
Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants, Vol.23, 2013, issue 1
Robert Pivec, Mark J. McElroy, Swetha Dhanireddy, Michael A. Mont, Qais Naziri, Kimona Issa, Aaron J. Johnson
Safety and Efficacy of Cultured/Noncultured Mesenchymal Stromal Cells without Concurrent Surgery for Knee Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials
Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants, Vol.30, 2020, issue 1
Nirav H. Amin, Michael Hall, Joseph McCafferty, Joseph N. Liu, Ikenna Nwachuku, Avinesh Agarwalla
Body-Weight-Supported Treadmill Walking Training Improves Functional Walking and Balance in Stroke Survivors at Any Poststroke Stage: A Systematic Review
Critical Reviews™ in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Vol.30, 2018, issue 4
Erik Chumacero-Polanco, C. Roger James, James Yang, Ming Wu