Inscrição na biblioteca: Guest
Portal Digital Begell Biblioteca digital da Begell eBooks Diários Referências e Anais Coleções de pesquisa
Critical Reviews™ in Immunology
Fator do impacto: 1.352 FI de cinco anos: 3.347 SJR: 1.022 SNIP: 0.55 CiteScore™: 2.19

ISSN Imprimir: 1040-8401
ISSN On-line: 2162-6472

Volumes:
Volume 39, 2019 Volume 38, 2018 Volume 37, 2017 Volume 36, 2016 Volume 35, 2015 Volume 34, 2014 Volume 33, 2013 Volume 32, 2012 Volume 31, 2011 Volume 30, 2010 Volume 29, 2009 Volume 28, 2008 Volume 27, 2007 Volume 26, 2006 Volume 25, 2005 Volume 24, 2004 Volume 23, 2003 Volume 22, 2002 Volume 21, 2001 Volume 20, 2000 Volume 19, 1999 Volume 18, 1998 Volume 17, 1997 Volume 16, 1996 Volume 15, 1995 Volume 14, 1994

Critical Reviews™ in Immunology

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevImmunol.v37.i2-6.70
pages 315-339

Microbial Products and Cytokines in Sleep and Fever Regulation

James M. Krueger
Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Tennessee, Memphis, 894 Union Avenue, Memphis, TN 38163
Jeannine A. Majde
Office of Naval Research, Arlington, VA 22217

RESUMO

Excessive sleepiness and fever are constitutional symptoms associated with systemic infection. Although fevers have been investigated for many years, sleep responses to infectious challenge have only recently been investigated. Inoculation of animals with bacterial, viral, protozoan and fungal organisms result in complex sleep responses dependent upon the microbial agent and route of administration. The general pattern is characterized by an initial robust increase in non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) followed by a period of NREMS inhibition. REMS is inhibited after infectious challenge. The sleep responses are accompanied by fever but the two responses are, in part, independent from each other. Sleep responses, like fevers, may be beneficial to host defense although this area is relatively uninvestigated. Microbial products likely responsible for sleep and fever responses include bacterial muramyl peptides and endotoxin, and viral double stranded RNA. These microbial products induce sleep and fever responses in animal models. The exact mechanism of how these structurally diverse microbial products elicit sleep and fever remain unknown; however these substances share the ability to induce cytokine production. Cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor, acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and interferon-α (IFN-α) are somnogenic whether given directly into brain or intravenously. Other cytokines lack somnogenic activity, e.g., IL-2, IL-6, IFNβ and basic FGF. The somnogenic actions of cytokines probably involve growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and nitric oxide. Anti-GHRH or inhibition of NO production inhibits normal sleep and inhibits IL-1-induced sleep. In conclusion, cytokines are likely key mediators of fever and sleep responses to infection. The microbial-cytokine altered sleep likely results from an amplification of physiological sleep mechanisms which include cytokines, several neuropeptides and neurotransmitters such as nitric oxide.


Articles with similar content:

Microbial Products and Cytokines in Sleep and Fever Regulation
Critical Reviews™ in Immunology, Vol.14, 1994, issue 3-4
Jeannine A. Majde, James M. Krueger
Role of Type II NKT Cells in the Suppression of Graft-versus-Host Disease
Critical Reviews™ in Immunology, Vol.28, 2008, issue 3
Chang Ki Min, Ji Hyung Kim, Sae Jin Oh, Doo Hyun Chung
Innate Antiviral Immunity against Dengue Virus
Critical Reviews™ in Immunology, Vol.35, 2015, issue 3
Sujan Shresta, Huda Makhluf
Mechanisms of Oral Tolerance
Critical Reviews™ in Immunology, Vol.17, 1997, issue 2
Paul Garside , Allan Mcl Mowat
The Role of Toll-like Receptors in Regulating the Immune Response against Respiratory Syncytial Virus
Critical Reviews™ in Immunology, Vol.29, 2009, issue 6
Frank Coenjaerts, Grada M. van Bleek, Lydia Tan, Peter Klein Klouwenberg, Wendy Werkman