Inscrição na biblioteca: Guest
Portal Digital Begell Biblioteca digital da Begell eBooks Diários Referências e Anais Coleções de pesquisa
Critical Reviews™ in Immunology
Fator do impacto: 1.404 FI de cinco anos: 3.347 SJR: 0.706 SNIP: 0.55 CiteScore™: 2.19

ISSN Imprimir: 1040-8401
ISSN On-line: 2162-6472

Volume 40, 2020 Volume 39, 2019 Volume 38, 2018 Volume 37, 2017 Volume 36, 2016 Volume 35, 2015 Volume 34, 2014 Volume 33, 2013 Volume 32, 2012 Volume 31, 2011 Volume 30, 2010 Volume 29, 2009 Volume 28, 2008 Volume 27, 2007 Volume 26, 2006 Volume 25, 2005 Volume 24, 2004 Volume 23, 2003 Volume 22, 2002 Volume 21, 2001 Volume 20, 2000 Volume 19, 1999 Volume 18, 1998 Volume 17, 1997 Volume 16, 1996 Volume 15, 1995 Volume 14, 1994

Critical Reviews™ in Immunology

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevImmunol.2020033247
pages 343-360

Clinical and Immunogenetic Aspects of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Lakkakula Venkata Kameswara Subrahmanya Bhaskar
Department of Zoology, Guru Ghasidas University, Bilaspur, 495009 (CG), India
Ganji Purnachandra Nagaraju
Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322


Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease triggered by a complex interaction of immunologic, environmental, and genetic factors. Like other diseases of autoimmune origin, SLE manifestations follow relapsing and remitting courses. Several lines of evidence have demonstrated the association of adaptive and innate immune responses with regulation in SLE pathogenesis. The immunological diagnosis primarily relies on detection of serum autoantibodies in SLE patients. A concordance rate of < 25% between monozygotic twins indicates potential involvement of environmental factors in SLE development. In addition, SLE is categorized by a wide range of clinical manifestations, partly related to the disease itself but also associated with comorbidities and adverse drug reactions. Because the common therapeutic strategies are connected with certain adverse events, immunosuppressive medications and biological agents are used on the basis of prevailing disease manifestations. Genome-wide association studies have identified 50 loci that influence SLE. However, the actual genetic polymorphism that imparts SLE risk is not fully known. Further understanding can help to expand quality of life in SLE individuals.


  1. Tanha N, Hansen RB, Nielsen CT, Faurschou M, Jacobsen S. Clinical and serological associations with the development of incident proteinuria in Danish patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol. 2018 Jul;45(7):934-41. PubMed PMID: 29657143. Epub 2018/04/17 .

  2. Cabrera CM, Fernandez-Grande E, Urra JM. Serological profile and clinical features of nucleolar antinuclear pattern in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus from southwestern Spain. Lupus. 2016 Aug;25(9):980-7. PubMed PMID: 26846693. Epub 2016/02/06. .

  3. Choi JH, Park DJ, Kang JH, Yim YR, Lee KE, Lee JW, Wen L, Kim TJ, Park YW, Lee JK, Lee SS. Comparison of clinical and serological differences among juvenile-, adult-, and late-onset systemic lupus erythematosus in Korean patients. Lupus. 2015 Oct;24(12):1342-9. PubMed PMID: 26085595. Epub 2015/06/19. .

  4. Hochberg MC. Updating the American college of rheumatology revised criteria for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 1997 Sep; 40(9):1725. PubMed PMID: 9324032. Epub 1997/10/27. eng. .

  5. Deapen D, Escalante A, Weinrib L, Horwitz D, Bachman B, Roy-Burman P, Walker A, Mack TM. A revised estimate of twin concordance in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 1992 Mar;35(3):311-8. PubMed PMID: 1536669. Epub 1992/03/01.eng. .

  6. Alarcon-Segovia D, Alarcon-Riquelme ME, Cardiel MH, Caeiro F, Massardo L, Villa AR, Pons-Estel BA. Familial aggregation of systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and other autoimmune diseases in 1,177 lupus patients from the GLADEL cohort. Arthritis Rheum. 2005 Apr;52(4): 1138-47. PubMed PMID: 15818688. Epub 2005/04/09.eng. .

  7. Mak A, Cheung MW, Chiew HJ, Liu Y, Ho RC. Global trend of survival and damage of systemic lupus erythematosus: meta-analysis and meta-regression of observational studies from the 1950s to 2000s. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2012 Jun;41(6):830-9. PubMed PMID: 22257558. Epub 2012/01/20.eng. .

  8. Torres-Ruiz J, Mejia-Dominguez NR, Zentella-Dehesa A, Ponce-de-Leon A, Morales-Padilla SR, Vazquez-Rodriguez R, Alvarado-Lara MR, Reyna-de-la-Garza RA, Tapia-Rodriguez M, Juarez-Vega G, Merayo-Chalico J, Barrera-Vargas A, Alcocer-Varela JC, Gomez-Martin D. The systemic lupus erythematosus infection predictive index (LIPI): a clinical-immunological tool to predict infections in lupus patients. Front Immunol. 2018;9:3144. PubMed PMID: 30692998. PMCID: PMC6340073. Epub 2019/01/30.eng. .

  9. McMahon M, Skaggs BJ, Grossman JM, Sahakian L, Fitzgerald J, Wong WK, Lourenco EV, Ragavendra N, Charles-Schoeman C, Gorn A, Karpouzas GA, Taylor MB, Watson KE, Weisman MH, Wallace DJ, Hahn BH. A panel of biomarkers is associated with increased risk of the presence and progression of atherosclerosis in women with systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum (Hoboken, NJ). 2014 Jan;66(1): 130-9. PubMed PMID: 24449580. PMCID: PMC4106468. Epub 2014/01/23.eng. .

  10. Katz G, Smilowitz NR, Blazer A, Clancy R, Buyon JP, Berger JS. Systemic lupus erythematosus and increased prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in hospitalized patients. Mayo Clin Proc. 2019;94(8):1436-43. .

  11. Faizulina DL, Shprakh VV. Cerebrovascular disease in women with systemic lupus erythematosus. Zhurnal Nevrologii Psikhiatrii Imeni SS Korsakova. 2013;113(3):4-8 (in Russian). PubMed PMID: 23612403. Epub 2013/04/25. rus. .

  12. Herrada AA, Escobedo N, Iruretagoyena M, Valenzuela RA, Burgos PI, Cuitino L, Llanos C. Innate immune cells' contribution to systemic lupus erythematosus. Front Immunol. 2019 April15;10:772. .

  13. Pan L, Lu M-P, Wang J-H, Xu M, Yang S-R. Immunological pathogenesis and treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus. World J Pediatr. 2019 February 22. doi: 10.1007/ s12519-019-00229-3. .

  14. Tsokos GC, Lo MS, Costa Reis P, Sullivan KE. New insights into the immunopathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2016 Nov 22;12(12):716-30. PubMed PMID: 27872476. Epub 2016/11/23.eng. .

  15. Rosenzweig SD, Holland SM. Recent insights into the pathobiology of innate immune deficiencies. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2011;11(5):369-77. PubMed PMID: 21814768.eng. .

  16. Vremec D, O'Keeffe M, Hochrein H, Fuchsberger M, Caminschi I, Lahoud M, Shortman K. Production of interferons by dendritic cells, plasmacytoid cells, natural killer cells, and interferon-producing killer dendritic cells. Blood. 2007 Feb 1;109(3): 1165-73. PubMed PMID: 17038535. Epub 2006/10/14.eng. .

  17. Isaacs A, Lindenmann J. Virus interference. I. The interferon. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1957;147:258-67. .

  18. Li Q-Z, Karp DR, Quan J, Branch VK, Zhou J, Lian Y, Chong BF, Wakeland EK, Olsen NJ. Risk factors for ANA positivity in healthy persons. Arthritis Res Ther. 2011;13(2):R38. PubMed PMID: 21366908.eng. .

  19. Li QZ, Zhou J, Lian Y, Zhang B, Branch VK, Carr-Johnson F, Karp DR, Mohan C, Wakeland EK, Olsen NJ. Interferon signature gene expression is correlated with autoantibody profiles in patients with incomplete lupus syndromes. Clin Exp Immunol. 2010;159(3):281-91. PubMed PMID: 19968664. Epub 12/01.eng. .

  20. Nicolas J-F, Thivolet J, Kanitakis J, Lyonnet S. Response of discoid and subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus to recombinant interferon-a 2A. J Investigative Dermatol. 1990;95(6 suppl):S142-5. .

  21. Feng X, Reder NP, Yanamandala M, Hill A, Franek BS, Niewold TB, Reder AT, Javed A. Type I interferon signature is high in lupus and neuromyelitis optica but low in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Sci. 2012 Feb 15;313(1-2):48-53. PubMed PMID: 22036215. PMCID: PMC3910514. Epub 2011/11/01.eng. .

  22. Salloum R, Niewold TB. Interferon regulatory factors in human lupus pathogenesis. Trans Res. 2011 Jun;157(6):326-31. PubMed PMID: 21575916. PMCID: PMC3096827. Epub 2011/05/18.eng. .

  23. Sigurdsson S, Nordmark G, Goring HH, Lindroos K, Wiman AC, Sturfelt G, Jonsen A, Rantapaa-Dahlqvist S, Moller B, Kere J, Koskenmies S, Widen E, Eloranta ML, Julkunen H, Kristjansdottir H, Steinsson K, Alm G, Ronnblom L, Syvanen AC. Polymorphisms in the tyrosine kinase 2 and interferon regulatory factor 5 genes are associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. Am J Human Gen. 2005 Mar;76(3):528-37. PubMed PMID: 15657875. PMCID: PMC1196404. Epub 2005/01/20.eng .

  24. Jensen MA, Niewold TB. Interferon regulatory factors: critical mediators of human lupus. Trans Res. 2015 Feb;165(2):283-95. PubMed PMID: 25445206. PMCID: PMC4306637. Epub 2014/12/03.eng. .

  25. Kristjansdottir G, Sandling JK, Bonetti A, Roos IM, Milani L, Wang C, Gustafsdottir SM, Sigurdsson S, Lundmark A, Tienari PJ, Koivisto K, Elovaara I, Pirttila T, Reunanen M, Peltonen L, Saarela J, Hillert J, Olsson T, Landegren U, Alcina A, Fernandez O, Leyva L, Guerrero M, Lucas M, Izquierdo G, Matesanz F, Syvanen AC. Interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) gene variants are asso-ciated with multiple sclerosis in three distinct populations. J Med Genet. 2008 Jun;45(6):362-9. PubMed PMID: 18285424. PMCID: PMC2564860. Epub 2008/02/21.eng. .

  26. Sigurdsson S, Padyukov L, Kurreeman FA, Liljedahl U, Wiman AC, Alfredsson L, Toes R, Ronnelid J, Klareskog L, Huizinga TW, Alm G, Syvanen AC, Ronnblom L. Association of a haplotype in the promoter region of the interferon regulatory factor 5 gene with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2007 Jul;56(7):2202-10. PubMed PMID: 17599733. Epub 2007/06/30.eng. .

  27. Smith CK, Kaplan MJ. The role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2015 Sep;27(5):448-53. PubMed PMID: 26125102. Epub 2015/07/01.eng. .

  28. Czaikoski PG, Mota JM, Nascimento DC, Sonego F, Castanheira FV, Melo PH, Scortegagna GT, Silva RL, Barroso-Sousa R, Souto FO, Pazin-Filho A, Figueiredo F, Alves-Filho JC, Cunha FQ. Neutrophil extracellular traps induce organ damage during experimental and clinical sepsis. PLoS One. 2016;11(2):e0148142. PubMed PMID: 26849138. PMCID: PMC4743982. Epub 2016/02/06.eng. .

  29. Berthelot JM, Le Goff B, Neel A, Maugars Y, Hamidou M. NETosis: at the crossroads of rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and vasculitis. Joint Bone Spine. 2017 May;84(3):255-62. PubMed PMID: 27426444. Epub 2016/07/19.eng. .

  30. Lood C, Blanco LP, Purmalek MM, Carmona-Rivera C, De Ravin SS, Smith CK, Malech HL, Ledbetter JA, Elkon KB, Kaplan MJ. Neutrophil extracellular traps enriched in oxidized mitochondrial DNA are interferogenic and contribute to lupus-like disease. Nat Med. 2016 Feb;22(2): 146-53. PubMed PMID: 26779811. PMCID: PMC4742415. Epub 2016/01/19.eng. .

  31. Kahlenberg JM, Carmona-Rivera C, Smith CK, Kaplan MJ. Neutrophil extracellular trap-associated protein activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome is enhanced in lupus macrophages. J Immunol. 2013 Feb 1;190(3): 1217-26. PubMed PMID: 23267025. PMCID: PMC3552129. Epub 2012/12/26.eng. .

  32. Kumar SV, Kulkarni OP, Mulay SR, Darisipudi MN, Romoli S, Thomasova D, Scherbaum CR, Hohenstein B, Hugo C, Muller S, Liapis H, Anders HJ. Neutrophil extracellular trap-related extracellular histones cause vascular necrosis in severe GN. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2015 Oct;26(10):2399-413. PubMed PMID: 25644111. PM-CID: PMC4587690. Epub 2015/02/04.eng. .

  33. Mietzner B, Tsuiji M, Scheid J, Velinzon K, Tiller T, Abraham K, Gonzalez JB, Pascual V, Stichweh D, Wardemann H, Nussenzweig MC. Autoreactive IgG memory antibodies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus arise from nonreactive and polyreactive precursors. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2008;105(28):9727-32. PubMed PMID: 18621685. Epub 07/09.eng. .

  34. Liu CP, Lin WJ, Huang M, Kappler JW, Marrack P. Development and function of T cells in T cell antigen receptor/CD3 Z knockout mice reconstituted with FceRIy. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 1997 Jan 21;94(2):616-21. PubMed PMID: 9012833. PMCID: PMC19562. Epub 1997/01/21.eng. .

  35. Jury EC, Kabouridis PS, Abba A, Mageed RA, Isenberg DA. Increased ubiquitination and reduced expression of LCK in T lymphocytes from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 2003 May;48(5):1343-54. PubMed PMID: 12746907. Epub 2003/05/15.eng. .

  36. Jury EC, Flores-Borja F, Kabouridis PS. Lipid rafts in T cell signalling and disease. Semin Cell Develop Biol. 2007;18(5-3):608-15. .

  37. Li Y, Harada T, Juang YT, Kyttaris VC, Wang Y, Zidanic M, Tung K, Tsokos GC. Phosphorylated ERM is responsible for increased T cell polarization, adhesion, and migration in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. J Immunol. 2007 Feb 1;178(3):1938-47. PubMed PMID: 17237445. Epub 2007/01/24.eng. .

  38. Crispin JC, Keenan BT, Finnell MD, Bermas BL, Schur P, Massarotti E, Karlson EW, Fitzgerald LM, Ergin S, Kyttaris VC, Tsokos GC, Costenbader KH. Expression of CD44 variant isoforms CD44v3 and CD44v6 is increased on T cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and is correlated with disease activity. Arthritis Rheum. 2010 May;62(5):1431-7. PubMed PMID: 20213807. PM-CID: PMC2879041. Epub 2010/03/10.eng. .

  39. Rozo C, Chinenov Y, Maharaj RK, Gupta S, Leuenberger L, Kirou KA, Bykerk VP, Goodman SM, Salmon JE, Pernis AB. Targeting the RhoA-ROCK pathway to reverse T-cell dysfunction in SLE. Ann Rheum Dis. 2017 Apr;76(4):740-7. PubMed PMID: 28283529. PMCID: PMC5839171. Epub 2017/03/12.eng. .

  40. Suarez-Fueyo A, Barber DF, Martinez-Ara J, Zea-Mendoza AC, Carrera AC. Enhanced phosphoinositide 3-kinase 5 activity is a frequent event in systemic lupus erythematosus that confers resistance to activation-induced T cell death. J Immunol. 2011 Sep 1;187(5):2376-85. PubMed PMID: 53. 21810603. Epub 2011/08/04.eng. .

  41. He J, Ma J, Ren B, Liu A. Advances in systemic lupus ery-thematosus pathogenesis via mTOR signaling pathway. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2019;pii:S0049-0172(19)30658-4. doi: 10.1016/j.semarthrit.2019.09.022. .

  42. Talaat RM, Mohamed SF, Bassyouni IH, Raouf AA. Th1/ Th2/Th17/Treg cytokine imbalance in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients: correlation with disease activity. Cytokine. 2015 Apr;72(2):146-53. PubMed PMID: 25647269. Epub 2015/02/04.eng. .

  43. Horwitz DA, Gray JD, Behrendsen SC, Kubin M, Rengaraju M, Ohtsuka K, Trinchieri G. Decreased production 56. of interleukin-12 and other Th1-type cytokines in patients with recent-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 1998 May;41(5):838-44. PubMed PMID: 9588735. Epub 1998/05/20.eng .

  44. Jones BM, Liu T, Wong RW. Reduced in vitro production of interferon-Y, interleukin-4 and interleukin-12 and increased production of interleukin-6, interleukin-10 and tumour necrosis factor-a in systemic lupus erythematosus. Weak correlations of cytokine production with disease activity. Autoimmunity. 1999 Oct;31(2):117-24. PubMed PMID: 10680750. Epub 2000/02/19.eng. .

  45. Alvarez-Rodriguez L, Martlnez-Taboada V, Calvo-Alen J, 59. Beares I, Villa I, Lopez-Hoyos M. Altered Th17/Treg ratio in peripheral blood of systemic lupus erythematosus but not primary antiphospholipid syndrome. Front Immunol. 2019;10:391. .

  46. Saber NZ, Maroof SH, Soliman DA, Fathi MS. Expression of T helper 17 cells and interleukin 17 in lupus nephritis patients. Egyptian Rheumatol. 2017;39(3):151-7. .

  47. Mizui M, Tsokos GC. Targeting regulatory T cells to treat patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Front Immunol. 2018 April 17;9(786). .

  48. Ma J, Yu J, Tao X, Cai L, Wang J, Zheng SG. The imbalance between regulatory and IL-17-secreting CD4+ T cells in lupus patients. Clin Rheumatol. 2010 Nov;29(11):1251-8. PubMed PMID: 20563617. Epub 2010/06/22.eng. .

  49. Gensous N, Charrier M, Duluc D, Contin-Bordes C, Truchetet M-E, Lazaro E, Duffau P, Blanco P, Richez C. T follicular helper cells in autoimmune disorders. Front Immunol. 2018 July17;9:1637. .

  50. Kim SJ, Lee K, Diamond B. Follicular helper T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus. Front Immunol. 2018;9:1793. PubMed PMID: 30123218.eng. .

  51. Nemazee D. Mechanisms of central tolerance for B cells. Nat Rev Immunol. 2017 May;17(5):281-94. PubMed PMID: 28368006. PMCID: PMC5623591. Epub 2017/04/04.eng. .

  52. Cheng PC, Dykstra ML, Mitchell RN, Pierce SK. A role for lipid rafts in B cell antigen receptor signaling and antigen targeting. J Exp Med. 1999 Dec 6;190(11):1549-60. PubMed PMID: 10587346. PMCID: PMC2195743. Epub 1999/12/10.eng. .

  53. Vazquez MI, Catalan-Dibene J, Zlotnik A. B cells responses and cytokine production are regulated by their immune microenvironment. Cytokine. 2015;74(2):318-26. PubMed PMID: 25742773. Epub 03/02.eng. .

  54. Yu S, Jia L, Zhang Y, Zhong J, Yang B, Wu C. IL-12 Induced the generation of IL-21- and IFN-y-co-expressing poly-functional CD4+ T cells from human naive CD4+ T cells. Cell Cycle. 2015 Nov;14(21):3362-72. .

  55. Batten M, Groom J, Cachero TG, Qian F, Schneider P, Tschopp J, Browning JL, Mackay F. BAFF Mediates survival of peripheral immature B lymphocytes. J Exp Med. 2000;192(10):1453-66. PubMed PMID: 11085747.eng. .

  56. Groom JR, Fletcher CA, Walters SN, Grey ST, Watt SV, Sweet MJ, Smyth MJ, Mackay CR, Mackay F. BAFF and MyD88 signals promote a lupuslike disease independent of T cells. J Exp Med. 2007 Aug 6;204(8):1959-71. PubMed PMID: 17664289. PMCID: PMC2118661. Epub 2007/08/01.eng. .

  57. Nakayamada S, Tanaka Y. BAFF- and APRIL-Targeted therapy in systemic autoimmune diseases. Inflamm Regen. 2016;36(1):6. Hoffman W, Lakkis FG, Chalasani G. B cells, antibodies, and more. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2016;11(1):137-54. PubMed PMID: 26700440. Epub 12/23.eng. .

  58. Yanaba K, Bouaziz JD, Haas KM, Poe JC, Fujimoto M, Tedder TF. A regulatory B cell subset with a unique CD-1dhiCD5+ phenotype controls T cell-dependent inflammatory responses. Immunity. 2008 May;28(5):639-50. PubMed PMID: 18482568. Epub 2008/05/17.eng. .

  59. Menon M, Blair PA, Isenberg DA, Mauri C. A regulatory feedback between plasmacytoid dendritic cells and regulatory B cells is aberrant in systemic lupus erythematosus. Immunity. 2016;44(3):683-97. .

  60. Heinemann K, Wilde B, Hoerning A, Tebbe B, Kribben A, Witzke O, Dolff S. Decreased IL-10+ regulatory B cells (Bregs) in lupus nephritis patients. Scand J Rheumatol. 2016;45(4):312-6. .

  61. Cervera R, Khamashta MA, Hughes GR. The Eurolupus project: epidemiology of systemic lupus erythematosus in Europe. Lupus. 2009 Sep;18(10):869-74. PubMed PMID: 19671784. Epub 2009/08/13.eng. .

  62. Love PE, Santoro SA. Antiphospholipid antibodies: anticardiolipin and the lupus anticoagulant in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and in non-SLE disorders. Prevalence and clinical significance. Ann Intern Med. 1990 May 1;112(9):682-98. PubMed PMID: 2110431. Epub 1990/05/01.eng. .

  63. Galli M, Luciani D, Bertolini G, Barbui T. Lupus anticoagulants are stronger risk factors for thrombosis than anticardiolipin antibodies in the antiphospholipid syndrome: a systematic review of the literature. Blood. 2003 Mar 1;101(5):1827-32. PubMed PMID: 12393574. Epub 2002/10/24.eng. .

  64. Lewis MJ, Jawad AS. The effect of ethnicity and genetic ancestry on the epidemiology, clinical features and outcome of systemic lupus erythematosus. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2017 Apr 1;56(Suppl 1):167-77. PubMed PMID: 27940583. Epub 2016/12/13.eng. .

  65. D'Cruz DP, Khamashta MA, Hughes GR. Systemic lupus erythematosus. Lancet. 2007 Feb 17;369(9561):587-96. PubMed PMID: 17307106. Epub 2007/02/20.eng. .

  66. Wananukul S, Watana D, Pongprasit P. Cutaneous manifestations of childhood systemic lupus erythematosus. Pediatric Dermatol. 1998 Sep-Oct;15(5):342-6. PubMed PMID: 9796581. Epub 1998/10/31.eng. .

  67. Chiewchengchol D, Murphy R, Edwards SW, Beresford MW. Mucocutaneous manifestations in juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus: a review of literature. Pediatr Rheumatol Online J. 2015;13:1. PubMed PMID: 25587243. PMCID: PMC4292833. Epub 2015/01/15. eng. .

  68. Ben-Menachem E. Systemic lupus erythematosus: a review for anesthesiologists. Anesth Analg. 2010 Sep;111(3):665-76. PubMed PMID: 20601448. Epub 2010/07/06.eng. .

  69. Alves F, Goncalo M. Suspected inflammatory rheumatic diseases in patients presenting with skin rashes. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2019 Aug;33(4): 101440. PubMed PMID: 31585842. Epub 2019/10/06.eng. .

  70. Drenkard C, Villa AR, Reyes E, Abello M, Alarcon-Segovia D. Vasculitis in systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus. 1997;6(3):235-42. PubMed PMID: 9104729. Epub 1997/01/01.eng. .

  71. Postal M, Lapa AT, Reis F, Rittner L, Appenzeller S. Magnetic resonance imaging in neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus: current state of the art and novel approaches. Lupus. 2017 Apr;26(5):517-21. PubMed PMID: 28394232. Epub 2017/04/11.eng. .

  72. Sahebari M, Rezaieyazdi Z, Khodashahi M, Abbasi B, Ayatollahi F. Brain single photon emission computed tomography scan (SPECT) and functional MRI in systemic lupus erythematosus patients with cognitive dysfunction: a systematic review. Asia Ocean J Nucl Med Biol. 2018;6(2):97-107. PubMed PMID: 29998142. PMCID: PMC6038975. Epub 2018/07/13.eng. .

  73. Zirkzee EJ, Steup-Beekman GM, van der Mast RC, Bollen EL, van der Wee NJ, Baptist E, Slee TM, Huisman MV, Middelkoop HA, Luyendijk J, van Buchem MA, Huizinga TW. Prospective study of clinical phenotypes in neuropsychiatry systemic lupus erythematosus; multidis-ciplinary approach to diagnosis and therapy. J Rheumatol. 2012 Nov;39(11):2118-26. PubMed PMID: 22984275. Epub 2012/09/18.eng. .

  74. Hanly JG. Diagnosis and management of neuropsychiatry SLE. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2014 Jun;10(6):338-47. PubMed PMID: 24514913. Epub 2014/02/12.eng. .

  75. Postal M, Lapa AT, Sinicato NA, de Oliveira Pelicari K, Peres FA, Costallat LT, Fernandes PT, Marini R, Appenzeller S. Depressive symptoms are associated with tumor necrosis factor a in systemic lupus erythematosus. J Neuroinflamm. 2016 Jan 6;13:5. PubMed PMID: 26732584. PMCID: PMC4702302. Epub 2016/01/07.eng. .

  76. Hanly JG, Kozora E, Beyea SD, Birnbaum J. Nervous system disease in systemic lupus erythematosus: current status and future directions. Arthritis Rheum. 2019 Jan;71(1):33-42. PubMed PMID: 29927108. Epub 2018/06/22.eng. .

  77. Sarbu N, Toledano P, Calvo A, Roura E, Sarbu MI, Espinosa G, Llado X, Cervera R, Bargallo N. Advanced MRI techniques: biomarkers in neuropsychiatric lupus. Lupus. 2017 Apr;26(5):510-6. PubMed PMID: 28394230. Epub 2017/04/11.eng. .

  78. Croca SC, Rahman A. Imaging assessment of cardiovascular disease in systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Dev Immunol. 2012;2012:694143. PubMed PMID: 22110536. PMCID: PMC3202117. Epub 2011/11/24.eng. .

  79. Wu LS, Tang CH, Lin YS, Lin CP, Hung ST, Hwa HL, Luo SF, Chu PH. Major adverse cardiovascular events and mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus patients after successful delivery: a population-based study. Am J Med Sci. 2014 Jan;347(1):42-9. PubMed PMID: 23255242. Epub 2012/12/21.eng. .

  80. Jung JY, Lee SW, Kim HA, Suh CH. Plasma free protein S is correlated with disease activity, but not with subclinical atherosclerosis among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a cross-sectional study. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2019 Sep;249(1):1-7. PubMed PMID: 31511453. Epub 2019/09/13.eng. .

  81. Liu SY, Han LS, Guo JY, Zheng ZH, Li H, Zhang L, Zhang X, He YJ, Gao GM, Liu ZS, Zeng XF. Metabolic syndrome in Chinese patients with systemic lupus erythe-matosus: no association with plasma cortisol level. Lupus. 2013 Apr;22(5):519-26. PubMed PMID: 23554041. Epub 2013/04/05.eng. .

  82. Petri M, Perez-Gutthann S, Spence D, Hochberg MC. Risk factors for coronary artery disease in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Am J Med. 1992 Nov;93(5):513-9. PubMed PMID: 1442853. Epub 1992/11/01.eng .

  83. Telles R, Lanna C, Ferreira G, Ribeiro A. Metabolic syndrome in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: association with traditional risk factors for coronary heart disease and lupus characteristics. Lupus. 2010 Jun;19(7):803-9. PubMed PMID: 20118159. Epub 2010/02/02.eng. .

  84. Zuily S, Regnault V, Selton-Suty C, Eschwege V, Bruntz JF, Bode-Dotto E, De Maistre E, Dotto P, Perret-Guillaume C, Lecompte T, Wahl D. Increased risk for heart valve disease associated with antiphospholipid antibodies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: meta-analysis of echocardiography studies. Circulation. 2011 Jul 12;124(2):215-24. PubMed PMID: 21690492. Epub 2011/06/22.eng. .

  85. Magder LS, Petri M. Incidence of and risk factors for adverse cardiovascular events among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Am J Epidemiol. 2012 Oct 15;176(8):708-19. PubMed PMID: 23024137. PMCID: PMC3571250. Epub 2012/10/02.eng. .

  86. Alpizar-Rodriguez D, Romero-Diaz J. Are cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus predictable at diagnosis? Rheumatology (Oxford). 2019 Nov 9;pii:kez539. PubMed PMID: 31710688. Epub 2019/11/12.eng. .

  87. Keane MP, Lynch JP. Pleuropulmonary manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus. Thorax. 2000;55(2): 159-66. .

  88. Hellman DB, Kirsch CM, Whiting-O'Keefe Q, Simonson J, Schiller NB, Petri M, Gamsu G, Gold W. Dyspnea in ambulatory patients with SLE: prevalence, severity, and correlation with incremental exercise testing. J Rheumatol. 1995 Mar;22(3):455-61. PubMed PMID: 7783061. Epub 1995/03/01.eng. .

  89. Nakano M, Hasegawa H, Takada T, Ito S, Muramatsu Y, Satoh M, Suzuki E, Gejyo F. Pulmonary diffusion capacity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Respirology. 2002 Mar;7(1):45-9. PubMed PMID: 11896900. Epub 2002/03/19.eng. .

  90. Lopez Velazquez M, Highland KB. Pulmonary manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjogren's syndrome. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2018;30(5):449-64. PubMed PMID: 00002281-201809000-00003. .

  91. Haye Salinas MJ, Caeiro F, Saurit V, Alvarellos A, Wojdyla D, Scherbarth HR, de OES Silva AC, Tavares Brenol JC, Lavras Costallat LT, Neira OJ, Iglesias Gamarra A, Vasquez G, Reyes Llerena GA, Barile-Fabris LA, Silveira LH, Sauza Del Pozo MJ, Acevedo Vasquez EM, Alfaro Lozano JL, Esteva Spinetti MH, Alarcon GS, Pons-Estel BA, Grupo Latino Americano de Estudio del Lupus (GLADEL). Pleuropulmonary involvement in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus from a Latin American inception cohort (GLADEL). Lupus. 2017 Nov;26(13): 1368-77. PubMed PMID: 28420071. Epub 2017/04/20.eng. .

  92. Alamoudi OSB, Attar SM. Pulmonary manifestations in systemic lupus erythematosus: association with disease activity. Respirology. 2015;20(3):474-80. PubMed PMID: 25639532. Epub 01/30.eng .

  93. Aguilera-Pickens G, Abud-Mendoza C. Pulmonary manifestations in systemic lupus erythematosus: pleural involvement, acute pneumonitis, chronic interstitial lung disease and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. Reumatol Clin. 2018 Sep-Oct;14(5):294-300. .

  94. Odler B, Bikov A, Streizig J, Balogh C, Kiss E, Vincze K, Barta I, Horvath I, Muller V. CCL21 and IP-10 as blood biomarkers for pulmonary involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Lupus. 2017 May;26(6): 572-9. PubMed PMID: 27614982. Epub 2016/09/12.eng. .

  95. Cameron JS. Lupus nephritis. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1999 Feb;10(2):413-24. PubMed PMID: 10215343. Epub 1999/04/24.eng. .

  96. Inda-Filho A, Neugarten J, Putterman C, Broder A. Improving outcomes in patients with lupus and end-stage renal disease. Semin Dial. 2013 Sep-Oct;26(5): 590-6. PubMed PMID: 24004337. Epub 09/04.eng. .

  97. Hajji M, Harzallah A, Kaaroud H, Barbouch S, Hamida FB, Abdallah TB. Factors associated with relapse of lupus nephritis: a single center study of 249 cases. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2017 Nov-Dec;28(6):1349-55. .

  98. Ioannidis JP, Boki KA, Katsorida ME, Drosos AA, Skopouli FN, Boletis JN, Moutsopoulos HM. Remission, relapse, and re-remission of proliferative lupus nephritis treated with cyclophosphamide. Kidney Int. 2000 Jan;57(1):258-64. PubMed PMID: 10620207. Epub 2000/01/05.eng. .

  99. Illei GG, Takada K, Parkin D, Austin HA, Crane M, Yarboro CH, Vaughan EM, Kuroiwa T, Danning CL, Pando J, Steinberg AD, Gourley MF, Klippel JH, Balow JE, Boumpas DT. Renal flares are common in patients with severe proliferative lupus nephritis treated with pulse immunosuppressive therapy: long-term follow up of a cohort of 145 patients participating in randomized controlled studies. Arthritis Rheum. 2002 Apr;46(4):995-1002. PubMed PMID: 11953977. Epub 2002/04/16. eng. .

  100. Costenbader KH, Desai A, Alarcon GS, Hiraki LT, Shaykevich T, Brookhart MA, Massarotti E, Lu B, Solomon DH, Winkelmayer WC. Trends in the incidence, demographics, and outcomes of end-stage renal disease due to lupus nephritis in the US from 1995 to 2006. Arthritis Rheum. 2011 Jun;63(6):1681-8. PubMed PMID: 21445962. PMCID: PMC3106117. Epub 2011/03/30. eng. .

  101. Hiraki LT, Lu B, Alexander SR, Shaykevich T, Alarcon GS, Solomon DH, Winkelmayer WC, Costenbader KH. End-stage renal disease due to lupus nephritis among children in the US, 1995-2006. Arthritis Rheum. 2011 Jul;63(7): 1988-97. PubMed PMID: 21445963. PMCID: PMC3128195. Epub 2011/03/30.eng. .

  102. Ward MM. Medical insurance, socioeconomic status, and age of onset of endstage renal disease in patients with lupus nephritis. J Rheumatol. 2007 Oct;34(10):2024-7. PubMed PMID: 17696272. Epub 2007/08/19.eng. .

  103. Ward MM. Socioeconomic status and the incidence of ESRD. Am J Kidney Dis. 2008 Apr;51(4):563-72. PubMed PMID: 18371532. Epub 2008/03/29.eng. .

  104. Yap DYH, Chan TM. Lupus nephritis in Asia: clinical features and management. Kidney Dis. 2015;1(2):100-9. .

  105. Tamargo J, Le Heuzey J-Y, Mabo P. Narrow therapeutic index drugs: a clinical pharmacological consideration to flecainide. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2015;71(5):549-67. PubMed PMID: 25870032. Epub 04/15.eng. .

  106. Birmingham DJ, Rovin BH, Shidham G, Bissell M, Nagaraja HN, Hebert LA. Relationship between albuminuria and total proteinuria in systemic lupus erythematosus nephritis: diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008;3(4): 1028-33. PubMed PMID: 18450925. Epub 05/01.eng. .

  107. Fayyaz A, Igoe A, Kurien BT, Danda D, James JA, Stafford HA, Scofield RH. Haematological manifestations of lupus. Lupus Sci Med. 2015;2(1):e000078. PubMed PMID: 25861458.eng. .

  108. Men K, Chen Y, Zhang J, Wei D. The evaluation of cellular immune function in elderly patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Korean J Intern Med. 2019;34(4):932-7. PubMed PMID: 29172398. Epub 11/29.eng. .

  109. Arenas M, Abad A, Valverde V, Ferriz P, Pascual R. Selective inhibition of granulopoiesis with severe neutropenia in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 1992 Aug;35(8):979-80. PubMed PMID: 1642663. Epub 1992/08/01.eng. .

  110. Rivero SJ, Diaz-Jouanen E, Alarcon-Segovia D. Lymphopenia in systemic lupus erythematosus. Clinical, diagnostic, and prognostic significance. Arthritis Rheum. 1978 Apr;21(3):295-305. PubMed PMID: 646828. Epub 1978/04/01.eng. .

  111. Jung J-Y, Suh C-H. Infection in systemic lupus erythematosus, similarities, and differences with lupus flare. Korean J Intern Med. 2017;32(3):429-38. PubMed PMID: 28490724. Epub 04/28.eng. .

  112. Nossent JC, Swaak AJ. Prevalence and significance of haematological abnormalities in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Q J Med. 1991 Jul;80(291):605-12. PubMed PMID: 1946940. Epub 1991/07/01.eng. .

  113. Bhuyan UN, Malaviya AN. Deficiency of T cells in blood and tissues and severity of infections in systemic lupus erythematosus. Indian J Med Res. 1978 Feb;67:269-78. PubMed PMID: 308044. Epub 1978/02/01.eng. .

  114. Ziakas PD, Routsias JG, Giannouli S, Tasidou A, Tzioufas AG, Voulgarelis M. Suspects in the tale of lupus-associated thrombocytopenia. Clin Exp Immunol. 2006;145(1):71-80. PubMed PMID: 16792676.eng. .

  115. Jung J-H, Soh M-S, Ahn Y-H, Um Y-J, Jung J-Y, Suh C-H, Kim H-A. Thrombocytopenia in systemic lupus erythe-matosus: clinical manifestations, treatment, and prognosis in 230 patients. Medicine. 2016;95(6):e2818. PubMed PMID: 00005792-201602090-00096. .

  116. Gruenberg JC, VanSlyck EJ, Abraham JP. Splenectomy in systemic lupus erythematosis. Am Surg. 1986 Jul;52(7):366-70. PubMed PMID: 3729170. Epub 1986/07/01.eng. .

  117. Sultan SM, Ioannou Y, Isenberg DA. A review of gastrointestinal manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus. Rheumatology (Oxford). 1999 0ct;38(10):917-32. PubMed PMID: 10534541. Epub 1999/10/27.eng .

  118. Jovaisas A, Kraag G. Acute gastrointestinal manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus. Can J Surg. 1987 May;30(3):185-8. PubMed PMID: 3580976. Epub 1987/05/01.eng. .

  119. Castrucci G, Alimandi L, Fichera A, Altomonte L, Zoli A. [Changes in esophageal motility in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: an esophago-manometric study.] Minerva Dietol Gastroenterol. 1990 Jan-Mar;36(1):3-7 (in Italian). PubMed PMID: 2336165. Epub 1990/01/01. .

  120. Saab S, Corr MP, Weisman MH. Corticosteroids and systemic lupus erythematosus pancreatitis: a case series. J Rheumatol. 1998 Apr;25(4):801-6. PubMed PMID: 9558190. Epub 1998/04/29.eng. .

  121. Wilcox CM. Overview of infectious esophagitis. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013;9(8):517-9. PubMed PMID: 24719600.eng. .

  122. Ebert EC, Hagspiel KD. Gastrointestinal and hepatic manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2011 May-Jun;45(5):436-41. PubMed PMID: 21422947. Epub 2011/03/23.eng. .

  123. Ceccato F, Salas A, Gongora V, Ruta S, Roverano S, Marcos JC, Garcia M, Paira S. Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in patients with systemic lupus erythe-matosus: report of four cases. Clin Rheumatol. 2008 Mar;27(3):399-402. PubMed PMID: 17938989. Epub 2007/10/17.eng. .

  124. Tian XP, Zhang X. Gastrointestinal involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus: insight into pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment. World J Gastroenterol. 2010 Jun 28;16(24):2971-7. PubMed PMID: 20572299. PMCID: PMC2890936. Epub 2010/06/24.eng. .

  125. Law ST, Ma KM, Li KK. The clinical characteristics of lupus related protein-losing enteropathy in Hong Kong Chinese population: 10 years of experience from a regional hospital. Lupus. 2012 Jul;21(8):840-7. PubMed PMID: 22343095. Epub 2012/02/22.eng. .

  126. Grover S, Rastogi A, Singh J, Rajbongshi A, Bihari C. Spectrum of histomorphologic findings in liver in patients with SLE: a review. Hepat Res Treat. 2014;2014:562979. PubMed PMID: 25136456. PMCID: PMC4130189. Epub 2014/08/20.eng. .

  127. Runyon BA, LaBrecque DR, Anuras S. The spectrum of liver disease in systemic lupus erythematosus. Report of 33 histologically proved cases and review of the literature. Am J Med. 1980 Aug;69(2):187-94. PubMed PMID: 7405944. Epub 1980/08/01.eng. .

  128. Chowdhary VR, Crowson CS, Poterucha JJ, Moder KG. Liver involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus: case review of 40 patients. J Rheumatol. 2008 Nov;35(11):2159-64. PubMed PMID: 18793002. Epub 2008/09/17.eng. .

  129. Efe C, Purnak T, Ozaslan E, Ozbalkan Z, Karaaslan Y, Altiparmak E, Muratori P, Wahlin S. Autoimmune liver disease in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a retrospective analysis of 147 cases. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2011 Jun;46(6):732-7. PubMed PMID: 21348808. Epub 2011/02/26.eng. .

  130. Irving KS, Sen D, Tahir H, Pilkington C, Isenberg DA. A comparison of autoimmune liver disease in juvenile and adult populations with systemic lupus erythematosus: a retrospective review of cases. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2007 Jul;46(7):1171-3. PubMed PMID: 17488749. Epub 2007/05/10.eng. .

  131. van Hoek B. The spectrum of liver disease in systemic lupus erythematosus. Neth J Med. 1996 Jun;48(6):244-53. PubMed PMID: 8710047. Epub 1996/06/01.eng. .

  132. Reynolds JC, Inman RD, Kimberly RP, Chuong JH, Kovacs JE, Walsh MB. Acute pancreatitis in systemic lupus erythematosus: report of twenty cases and a review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore). 1982 Jan;61(1):25-32. PubMed PMID: 6173564. Epub 1982/01/01.eng. .

  133. Makol A, Petri M. Pancreatitis in systemic lupus erythematosus: frequency and associated factors-A review of the Hopkins Lupus Cohort. J Rheumatol. 2010 Feb; 37(2):341-5. PubMed PMID: 20032096. Epub 2009/12/ 25.eng. .

  134. Pascual-Ramos V, Duarte-Rojo A, Villa AR, Hernandez-Cruz B, Alarcon-Segovia D, Alcocer-Varela J, Robles-Diaz G. Systemic lupus erythematosus as a cause and prognostic factor of acute pancreatitis. J Rheumatol. 2004 Apr;31(4):707-12. PubMed PMID: 15088295. Epub 2004/04/17.eng. .

  135. de Carvalho JF. Mesenteric vasculitis in a systemic lupus erythematosus patient with a low SLEDAI: an uncommon presentation. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2010;65(3):337-40. PubMed PMID: 20360927.eng. .

  136. Lee MG, Hagley K, Decuaelar K. Intestinal ischemia in systemic lupus erythematosus. J Natl Med Assoc. 2008 Jun;100(6):721-3. PubMed PMID: 18595576. Epub 2008/07/04.eng. .

  137. Ozbek S, Sert M, Paydas S, Soy M. Delay in the diagnosis of SLE: the importance of arthritis/arthralgia as the initial symptom. Acta Med Okayama. 2003 Aug;57(4):187-90. PubMed PMID: 14627070. Epub 2003/11/25.eng. .

  138. Pettersson S, Lovgren M, Eriksson LE, Moberg C, Svenungsson E, Gunnarsson I, Welin Henriksson E. An exploration of patient-reported symptoms in systemic lupus erythematosus and the relationship to health-related quality of life. Scand J Rheumatol. 2012 Oct;41(5):383-90. PubMed PMID: 22646821. Epub 2012/06/01.eng. .

  139. Baker K, Pope J, Fortin P, Silverman E, Peschken C. Work disability in systemic lupus erythematosus is prevalent and associated with socio-demographic and disease related factors. Lupus. 2009 Dec;18(14):1281-8. PubMed PMID: 19854811. Epub 2009/10/27.eng. .

  140. Santiago MB, Galvao V. Jaccoud arthropathy in systemic lupus erythematosus: analysis of clinical characteristics and review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore). 2008 Jan;87(1):37-44. PubMed PMID: 18204369. Epub 2008/01/22.eng. .

  141. Richter Cohen M, Steiner G, Smolen JS, Isenberg DA. Erosive arthritis in systemic lupus erythematosus: analysis of a distinct clinical and serological subset. Br J Rheumatol. 1998 Apr;37(4):421-4. PubMed PMID: 9619894. Epub 1998/06/10.eng. .

  142. Zayat AS, Md Yusof MY, Wakefield RJ, Conaghan PG, Emery P, Vital EM. The role of ultrasound in assessing musculoskeletal symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus: a systematic literature review. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2016 Mar;55(3):485-94. PubMed PMID: 26447163. PMCID: PMC5854027. Epub 2015/10/09.eng. .

  143. Gabba A, Piga M, Vacca A, Porru G, Garau P, Cauli A, Mathieu A. Joint and tendon involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus: an ultrasound study of hands and wrists in 108 patients. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2012 Dec;51(12):2278-85. PubMed PMID: 22956550. Epub 2012/09/08.eng. .

  144. Ball EM, Tan AL, Fukuba E, McGonagle D, Grey A, Steiner G, Bell AL, Rooney MR. A study of erosive phenotypes in lupus arthritis using magnetic resonance imaging and anti-citrullinated protein antibody, anti-RA33 and RF autoantibody status. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2014 Oct;53(10): 1835-43. PubMed PMID: 24850876. Epub 2014/05/23.eng. .

  145. Hahn BH, McMahon MA, Wilkinson A, Wallace WD, Daikh DI, Fitzgerald JD, Karpouzas GA, Merrill JT, Wallace DJ, Yazdany J, Ramsey-Goldman R, Singh K, Khalighi M, Choi SI, Gogia M, Kafaja S, Kamgar M, Lau C, Martin WJ, Parikh S, Peng J, Rastogi A, Chen W, Grossman JM. American college of rheumatology guidelines for screening, treatment, and management of lupus nephritis. Arthr Care Res. 2012 Jun;64(6):797-808. PubMed PMID: 22556106. PMCID: PMC3437757. Epub 2012/05/05.eng. .

  146. Herrinton LJ, Liu L, Goldfien R, Michaels MA, Tran TN. Risk of serious infection for patients with systemic lupus erythematosus starting glucocorticoids with or with-out antimalarials. J Rheumatol. 2016 Aug;43(8):1503-9. PubMed PMID: 27370880. Epub 2016/07/03.eng. .

  147. Petri M. Hydroxychloroquine use in the Baltimore Lupus cohort: effects on lipids, glucose and thrombosis. Lupus. 1996 Jun;5(Suppl 1):S16-22. PubMed PMID: 8803905. Epub 1996/06/01.eng. .

  148. Ostensen M, Villiger PM. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus. 2001;10(3):135-9. PubMed PMID: 11315341. Epub 2001/04/24.eng. .

  149. Heckmann JM, Rawoot A, Bateman K, Renison R, Badri M. A single-blinded trial of methotrexate versus azathioprine as steroid-sparing agents in generalized myasthenia gravis. BMC Neurol. 2011;11:97. PubMed PMID: 21819556.eng. .

  150. Aytan J, Bukhari MAS. Use of biologics in SLE: a review of the evidence from a clinical perspective. Rheumatology. 2015;55(5):775-9. .

  151. Magro-Checa C, Zirkzee EJ, Huizinga TW, Steup-Beekman GM. Management of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus: current approaches and future perspectives. Drugs. 2016 Mar;76(4):459-83. PubMed PMID: 26809245. PMCID: PMC4791452. Epub 2016/01/27.eng. .

  152. Furie RA, Leon G, Thomas M, Petri MA, Chu AD, Hislop C, Martin RS, Scheinberg MA. A phase 2, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial of blisibimod, an inhibitor of B cell activating factor, in patients with moderate-to-severe systemic lupus erythematosus, the PEARL-SC study. Ann Rheum Dis. 2015 Sep;74(9): 1667-75. PubMed PMID: 24748629. Epub 2014/04/22.eng. .

  153. Khamashta M, Merrill JT, Werth VP, Furie R, Kalunian K, Illei GG, Drappa J, Wang L, Greth W. Sifalimumab, an anti-interferon-a monoclonal antibody, in moderate to severe systemic lupus erythematosus: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Ann Rheum Dis. 2016;75(11):1909-16. .

  154. Riggs JM, Hanna RN, Rajan B, Zerrouki K, Karnell JL, Sagar D, Vainshtein I, Farmer E, Rosenthal K, Morehouse C, de los Reyes M, Schifferli K, Liang M, Sanjuan MA, Sims GP, Kolbeck R. Characterisation of anifrolumab, a fully human anti-interferon receptor antagonist antibody for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus Sci Med. 2018;5(1):e000261. .

  155. Furukawa H, Kawasaki A, Oka S, Ito I, Shimada K, Sugii S, Hashimoto A, Komiya A, Fukui N, Kondo Y, Ito S, Hayashi T, Matsumoto I, Kusaoi M, Amano H, Nagai T, Hirohata S, Setoguchi K, Kono H, Okamoto A, Chiba N, Suematsu E, Katayama M, Migita K, Suda A, Ohno S, Hashimoto H, Takasaki Y, Sumida T, Nagaoka S, Tsuchiya N, Tohma S. Human leukocyte antigens and systemic lupus erythematosus: a protective role for the HLA-DR6 alleles DRB1*13:02 and *14:03. PLoS One. 2014;9(2):e87792. PubMed PMID: 24498373.eng. .

  156. Pradhan V, Devaraj J, Shankarkumar U, Badakere S. Autoimmune studies and HLA associations in SLE patients from Mumbai. Int J Human Genet. 2004;4(2):141-6. .

  157. Walport MJ. Complement. Second of two parts. New Engl J Med. 2001 Apr 12;344(15):1140-4. PubMed PMID: 11297706. Epub 2001/04/12.eng. .

  158. Yang Y, Chung EK, Wu YL, Savelli SL, Nagaraja HN, Zhou B, Hebert M, Jones KN, Shu Y, Kitzmiller K, Blanchong CA, McBride KL, Higgins GC, Rennebohm RM, Rice RR, Hackshaw KV, Roubey RAS, Grossman JM, Tsao BP, Birmingham DJ, Rovin BH, Hebert LA, Yu CY. Gene copy-number variation and associated polymorphisms of complement component C4 in human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): low copy number is a risk factor for and high copy number is a protective factor against SLE susceptibility in European Americans. Am J Human Genet. 2007;80(6):1037-54. PubMed PMID: 17503323. Epub 04/26.eng. .

  159. Scofield RH, Bruner GR, Namjou B, Kimberly RP, Ramsey-Goldman R, Petri M, Reveille JD, Alarcon GS, Vila LM, Reid J, Harris B, Li S, Kelly JA, Harley JB. Klinefelter's syndrome (47,XXY) in male systemic lupus erythematosus patients: support for the notion of a genedose effect from the X chromosome. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58(8):2511-7. PubMed PMID: 18668569.eng. .

  160. Sharma R, Harris VM, Cavett J, Kurien BT, Liu K, Koelsch KA, Fayaaz A, Chaudhari KS, Radfar L, Lewis D, Stone DU, Kaufman CE, Li S, Segal B, Wallace DJ, Weisman MH, Venuturupalli S, Kelly JA, Pons-Estel B, Jonsson R, Lu X, Gottenberg JE, Anaya JM, Cunninghame-Graham DS, Huang AJW, Brennan MT, Hughes P, Alevizos I, Miceli-Richard C, Keystone EC, Bykerk VP, Hirschfield G, Nordmark G, Bucher SM, Eriksson P, Omdal R, Rhodus NL, Rischmueller M, Rohrer M, Wahren-Herlenius M, Witte T, Alarcon-Riquelme M, Mariette X, Lessard CJ, Harley JB, Ng WF, Rasmussen A, Sivils KL, Scofield RH. Rare X chromosome abnormalities in systemic lupus ery-thematosus and Sjogren's syndrome. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2017 Nov;69(11 ):2187-92. PubMed PMID: 28692793. Epub 2017/07/12.eng .

  161. Harley JB, Alarcon-Riquelme ME, Criswell LA, Jacob CO, Kimberly RP, Moser KL, Tsao BP, Vyse TJ, Langefeld CD, Nath SK, Guthridge JM, Cobb BL, Mirel DB, Marion MC, Williams AH, Divers J, Wang W, Frank SG, Namjou B, Gabriel SB, Lee AT, Gregersen PK, Behrens TW, Taylor KE, Fernando M, Zidovetzki R, Gaffney PM, Edberg JC, Rioux JD, Ojwang JO, James JA, Merrill JT, Gilkeson GS, Seldin MF, Yin H, Baechler EC, Li QZ, Wakeland EK, Bruner GR, Kaufman KM, Kelly JA. Genome-wide association scan in women with systemic lupus erythematosus identifies susceptibility variants in ITGAM, PXK, KIAA1542 and other loci. Nat Genet. 2008 Feb;40(2):204-10. PubMed PMID: 18204446. PM-CID: PMC3712260. Epub 2008/01/22.eng. .

  162. Hom G, Graham RR, Modrek B, Taylor KE, Ortmann W, Garnier S, Lee AT, Chung SA, Ferreira RC, Pant PV, Ballinger DG, Kosoy R, Demirci FY, Kamboh MI, Kao AH, Tian C, Gunnarsson I, Bengtsson AA, Rantapaa-Dahlqvist S, Petri M, Manzi S, Seldin MF, Ronnblom L, Syvanen AC, Criswell LA, Gregersen PK, Behrens TW. Association of systemic lupus erythematosus with C8orf13-BLK and ITGAM-ITGAX. New Engl J Med. 2008 Feb 28;358(9): 900-9. PubMed PMID: 18204098. Epub 2008/01/22.eng. .

  163. Ronnblom L, Leonard D. Interferon pathway in SLE: one key to unlocking the mystery of the disease. Lupus Sci Med. 2019;6(1):e000270. .

  164. Lee HT, Lin CS, Lee CS, Tsai CY, Wei YH. The role of hOGG1 C1245G polymorphism in the susceptibility to lupus nephritis and modulation of the plasma 8-OHdG in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Int J Mol Sci. 2015 Feb 9;16(2):3757-68. PubMed PMID: 25671815. PMCID: PMC4346924. Epub 2015/02/12.eng. .

  165. Massaad MJ, Zhou J, Tsuchimoto D, Chou J, Jabara H, Janssen E, Glauzy S, Olson BG, Morbach H, Ohsumi TK, Schmitz K, Kyriacos M, Kane J, Torisu K, Nakabeppu Y, Notarangelo LD, Chouery E, Megarbane A, Kang PB, Al-Idrissi E, Aldhekri H, Meffre E, Mizui M, Tsokos GC, Manis JP, Al-Herz W, Wallace SS, Geha RS. Deficiency of base excision repair enzyme NEIL3 drives increased predisposition to autoimmunity. J Clin Invest. 2016 Nov 1;126(11):4219-36. PubMed PMID: 27760045. PMCID: PMC5096910. Epub 2016/11/02.eng. .

  166. Li Y, Wu Z, Zhang S, Chen S, Li P, Li J, Cao C, Liu B, Zhang F, Li Y. Genetic variants of IKB kinase p (IKBKB) and polymerase p (POLB) were not associated with systemic lupus erythematosus risk in a Chinese Han population. PLoS One. 2015;10(7):e0132556. .

  167. Warchol T, Mostowska A, Lianeri M, Lqcki JK, Jagodzinski PP. XRCC1 Arg399Gln gene polymorphism and the risk of systemic lupus erythematosus in the Polish population. DNA Cell Biol. 2012 Jan;31(1):50-6. PubMed PMID: 21682595. Epub 06/17.eng. .

  168. Wang J, Cao P, Qi YY, Chen XP, Ma L, Deng RR, Zhang LL, Zhao Y. The relationship between cell apoptosis dysfunction and FEN1 E160D mutation in lupus nephritis patients. Autoimmunity. 2017 Dec;50(8):476-80. PubMed PMID: 29239254. Epub 2017/12/15.eng. .

  169. Dema B, Charles N. Autoantibodies in SLE: specificities, isotypes and receptors. Antibodies (Basel). 2016;5(1):2. PubMed PMID: 31557984.eng. .

  170. Dai C, Deng Y, Quinlan A, Gaskin F, Tsao BP, Fu SM. Genetics of systemic lupus erythematosus: immune responses and end organ resistance to damage. Curr Opin Immunol. 2014;31:87-96. PubMed PMID: 25458999. Epub 10/25.eng. .

  171. Nasr AS, Darweesh H, El Khateeb E, Fayed HL, El-Dakrony A-H. Role of glutathione S-transferases polymorphisms and monocyte CD64 expression in Egyptian patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Egyptian Rheumatol. 2017 July;39(3):139-43. .

  172. Gao M, Wang CH, Sima X, Han XM. NFKB1-94 Insertion/deletion ATTG polymorphism contributes to risk of systemic lupus erythematosus. DNA Cell Biol. 2012 Apr;31(4):611-5. PubMed PMID: 22013908. Epub 2011/10/22.eng. .

  173. James JA. Clinical perspectives on lupus genetics: advances and opportunities. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2014;40(3):413-32. PubMed PMID: 25034154. Epub 06/10.eng. .

  174. Barnes BJ, Moore PA, Pitha PM. Virus-specific activation of a novel interferon regulatory factor, IRF-5, results in the induction of distinct interferon a genes. J Biol Chem. 2001 Jun 29;276(26):23382-90. PubMed PMID: 11303025. Epub 2001/04/17.eng. .

  175. Barnes BJ, Kellum MJ, Field AE, Pitha PM. Multiple regulatory domains of IRF-5 control activation, cellular localization, and induction of chemokines that mediate recruitment of T lymphocytes. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22(16):5721-40. .

  176. Richez C, Barnetche T, Miceli-Richard C, Blanco P, Moreau JF, Rifkin I, Schaeverbeke T. Role for interferon regulatory factors in autoimmunity. Joint Bone Spine. 2010 Dec;77(6):525-31. PubMed PMID: 20863736. Epub 2010/09/25.eng. .

  177. Devaraju P, Mehra S, Gulati R, Antony PT, Jain VK, Misra DP, Negi VS. The IRF5 rs2004640 (G/T) polymorphism is not a genetic risk factor for systemic lupus erythematosus in population from south India. Indian J Med Res. 2018;147(6):560-6. PubMed PMID: 30168487.eng. .

Articles with similar content:

Non-Major Histocompatibility Complex Rheumatoid Arthritis Susceptibility Genes
Critical Reviews™ in Immunology, Vol.31, 2011, issue 2
Saleh M. Ibrahim, Manfred Kunz
Sclerosing Bone Disorders: Too Much of a Good Thing
Critical Reviews™ in Eukaryotic Gene Expression, Vol.20, 2010, issue 3
Bram Perdu, Wim Van Hul
Identifying Crosstalk between Raf Kinase Inhibitor Protein and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Critical Reviews™ in Immunology, Vol.39, 2019, issue 6
Inesa Navasardyan, Benjamin Bonavida
Immunological Effects of Thalidomide and Its Chemical and Functional Analogs
Critical Reviews™ in Immunology, Vol.22, 2002, issue 5-6
J. Blake Marriott, Keith Dredge, Angus G. Dalgleish
Proteoglycan-Induced Arthritis: Immune Regulation, Cellular Mechanisms, and Genetics
Critical Reviews™ in Immunology, Vol.23, 2003, issue 3
Tibor T. Glant, Alison Finnegan, Katalin Mikecz