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Critical Reviews™ in Immunology
Fator do impacto: 1.352 FI de cinco anos: 3.347 SJR: 0.657 SNIP: 0.55 CiteScore™: 2.19

ISSN Imprimir: 1040-8401
ISSN On-line: 2162-6472

Volumes:
Volume 39, 2019 Volume 38, 2018 Volume 37, 2017 Volume 36, 2016 Volume 35, 2015 Volume 34, 2014 Volume 33, 2013 Volume 32, 2012 Volume 31, 2011 Volume 30, 2010 Volume 29, 2009 Volume 28, 2008 Volume 27, 2007 Volume 26, 2006 Volume 25, 2005 Volume 24, 2004 Volume 23, 2003 Volume 22, 2002 Volume 21, 2001 Volume 20, 2000 Volume 19, 1999 Volume 18, 1998 Volume 17, 1997 Volume 16, 1996 Volume 15, 1995 Volume 14, 1994

Critical Reviews™ in Immunology

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevImmunol.v32.i4.40
pages 335-348

Immune Functions of Serum Amyloid A

Kari K. Eklund
Wihuri Research Institute, Helsinki, Finland
K. Niemi
Wihuri Research Institute, Helsinki, Finland
P. T. Kovanen
Wihuri Research Institute, Helsinki, Finland

RESUMO

Serum amyloid A (SAA) is a highly conserved, acute-phase protein synthesized predominantly by the liver. After secretion into the circulation, it associates with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles. During acute inflammation, serum SAA levels may rise up to 1000-fold, and under these conditions, SAA displaces apolipoprotein A-I from HDL, thus becoming the major apolipoprotein of circulating HDL3. SAA exhibits significant immunological activity by, for example, inducing the synthesis of several cytokines and by being chemotactic for neutrophils and mast cells. It exerts many of its immunological activities by binding and activating cell-surface receptors, including Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4, formyl peptide receptor-like 1 (FPRL1), class B scavenger receptor CD36, and the ATP receptor P2X7. SAA also recently has been shown to activate the inflammasome cascade, which has a key role in immune activation, thus further stressing the unique role of SAA in immunomodulation. Traditionally, SAA has been considered to have a key role in the pathogenesis of amyloid A−type amyloidosis, but we now understand that it may also participate in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and atherosclerosis. Thus, SAA is one potential target in the treatment of diseases associated with chronic inflammation. The purpose of this review is to shed light on SAA as an immunologically active protein. We also focus on the recent findings implicating SAA in the regulation of the inflammasome cascade.


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