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Critical Reviews™ in Immunology
Fator do impacto: 1.352 FI de cinco anos: 3.347 SJR: 0.657 SNIP: 0.55 CiteScore™: 2.19

ISSN Imprimir: 1040-8401
ISSN On-line: 2162-6472

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Critical Reviews™ in Immunology

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevImmunol.2014011577
pages 399-432

Victory and Defeat in the Induction of a Therapeutic Response through Vaccine Therapy for Human and Canine Brain Tumors: A Review of the State of the Art

Michael R. Olin
Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55445
G Elizabeth Pluhar
Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN. 55108
Brian M. Andersen
Department of Pediatrics. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55445
Rob Shaver
Department of Pediatrics. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55445
Nate N. Waldron
Department of Pediatrics. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55445
Christopher L. Moertel
Department of Pediatrics. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55445

RESUMO

Anti-tumor immunotherapy using tumor lysate−based vaccines has made great advances over recent decades. Cancer vaccines aim to elicit adaptive immune responses through various pathways by providing tumor and tumor-associated antigens with an immune stimulant or adjuvant. These anti-tumor vaccines are therefore developed as personalized treatments. Utilizing tumors as a source of vaccine antigens in immunotherapy has demonstrated promising results with minimal toxicity. However, to date, researchers have failed to overcome the overpowering immune suppressive effects within the tumor microenvironment. Immune suppression occurs naturally via multiple mechanisms. These mechanisms serve an important homeostatic role restoring a normal tissue microenvironment following an inflammatory response. Due to these suppressive mechanisms and the inherent heterogeneity of tumors, it is imperative to then elicit and maintain a specific tumoricidal response if vaccine therapy or some other combination of reagents is chosen. In this review, we focus on the historical use of tumors as a source of antigens to elicit a tumoricidal response and the limitations encountered that prevent greater success in immunotherapy. We describe the advantages and disadvantages of various vaccines and their ineffectiveness due to tumor-induced immune suppression.


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