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Critical Reviews™ in Immunology
Fator do impacto: 1.352 FI de cinco anos: 3.347 SJR: 1.022 SNIP: 0.55 CiteScore™: 2.19

ISSN Imprimir: 1040-8401
ISSN On-line: 2162-6472

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Critical Reviews™ in Immunology

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevImmunol.2018026181
pages 207-231

Cellular Components and Mechanisms of Oral Tolerance Induction

Rafael M. Rezende
Ann Romney Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
Howard L. Weiner
Ann Romney Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts


Oral tolerance can be defined as an inhibition of specific immune responsiveness to subsequent parenteral injections of proteins to which an individual or animal has been previously exposed via the oral route. Multiple mechanisms of tolerance are induced by oral-fed antigens, but induction of regulatory CD4 T-cells expressing the transcription factor Foxp3 and the membrane-bound TGF-β stands out as the major players in oral tolerance. Oral antigen administration suppresses several animal models of autoimmune disease, including experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, uveitis, thyroiditis, myasthenia, arthritis, and diabetes, but also nonautoimmune inflammatory conditions such as asthma, atherosclerosis, graft rejection, allergy, and stroke. However, human trials have produced mixed results, and a great deal remains to be learned about the mechanisms of oral tolerance before it can be successfully applied to people. In this review, we highlight the cellular components involved in oral tolerance induction. A deep knowledge of these intricate cell interactions will pave the way for a successful application of antigen tolerance to treat autoimmune and nonautoimmune inflammatory diseases.

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