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Critical Reviews™ in Immunology
Fator do impacto: 1.352 FI de cinco anos: 3.347 SJR: 0.657 SNIP: 0.55 CiteScore™: 2.19

ISSN Imprimir: 1040-8401
ISSN On-line: 2162-6472

Volumes:
Volume 39, 2019 Volume 38, 2018 Volume 37, 2017 Volume 36, 2016 Volume 35, 2015 Volume 34, 2014 Volume 33, 2013 Volume 32, 2012 Volume 31, 2011 Volume 30, 2010 Volume 29, 2009 Volume 28, 2008 Volume 27, 2007 Volume 26, 2006 Volume 25, 2005 Volume 24, 2004 Volume 23, 2003 Volume 22, 2002 Volume 21, 2001 Volume 20, 2000 Volume 19, 1999 Volume 18, 1998 Volume 17, 1997 Volume 16, 1996 Volume 15, 1995 Volume 14, 1994

Critical Reviews™ in Immunology

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevImmunol.v20.i2.30
32 pages

Phosphorylation-Based Signaling in Fas Receptor-Mediated Apoptosis

Tim H. Holmstrom
Turku Centre for Biotechnology; Turku Graduate School in Biomedical Sciences, University of Turku and Abo Akademi University, P.O.B. 123; and Department of Biology, Abo Akademi University, Biocity, FIN-20520, Turku, Finland
John E. Eriksson
Turku Centre for Biotechnology, University of Turku and Abo Akademi University, P.O.B. 123, FIN-20521; and Department of Biology, Laboratory of Animal Physiology, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland

RESUMO

Apoptosis or programmed cell death plays an essential role during development of the immune system, in immune responses, and in the control of tissue homeostasis in the adult. An important physiological mediator of apoptosis is the Fas/APO-1/CD95 receptor (FasR), a surface receptor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor receptor family. Apoptosis consists of a series of characteristic features that occur following activation of caspases, a collective term for apoptosis-specific proteases. The focus in FasR research has been on determining the mechanisms resulting in caspase activation. However, the role of phosphorylation-based signaling has received increasing attention both as an outcome of FasR activation and as a factor regulating FasR responses. Tyrosine-directed phosphorylation has been implicated to be induced and required during FasR stimulation. The FasR also activates all major signaling pathways that belong to the family of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, by either caspase-independent or -dependent mechanisms. Furthermore, phosphorylation-based signaling serves as a potent modifier of FasR responses. In this respect, especially the extracellular signal-regulated kinase and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling pathways have been established as important regulators. This type of control seems to be directly phosphorylation-mediated without the requirement of newly synthesized proteins. Signaling through phosphorylation also regulates the expression of the Fas ligand (FasL), the FasR, as well as various other proteins that affect the outcome of receptor stimulation. While the involvement of phosphorylation has been established in FasR responses, the targets, molecular mechanisms, and biological significance of this aspect of the FasR signaling machinery still require further elucidation.