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Critical Reviews™ in Biomedical Engineering
SJR: 0.207 SNIP: 0.376 CiteScore™: 0.79

ISSN Imprimir: 0278-940X
ISSN On-line: 1943-619X

Volume 47, 2019 Volume 46, 2018 Volume 45, 2017 Volume 44, 2016 Volume 43, 2015 Volume 42, 2014 Volume 41, 2013 Volume 40, 2012 Volume 39, 2011 Volume 38, 2010 Volume 37, 2009 Volume 36, 2008 Volume 35, 2007 Volume 34, 2006 Volume 33, 2005 Volume 32, 2004 Volume 31, 2003 Volume 30, 2002 Volume 29, 2001 Volume 28, 2000 Volume 27, 1999 Volume 26, 1998 Volume 25, 1997 Volume 24, 1996 Volume 23, 1995

Critical Reviews™ in Biomedical Engineering

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevBiomedEng.2019031097
pages 395-407

Biomarkers of Cardiac Health and Disease

Prakash Kumar Sinha
Senior Research Associate, Department of Biotechnology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India
Eshu Singhal Sinha
Department of Biotechnology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India
Jagdeep Kaur
Department of Biotechnology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India


Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are globally associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. CVDs are diagnosed based on clinical assessment, physical examination, disease history, electrocardiogram, and chest X-ray. However, these parameters have limited sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, CVDs include a range of conditions and are characterized by a wide variation in symptoms. Some patients with CVDs can also be asymptomatic. Hence, biomarkers are required for CVD confirmatory diagnoses. Although various biomarkers are suggestive of different CVDs, most of them are not used clinically in CVD diagnosis. This is because a single molecule is not completely suitable for diagnosis, especially at an early stage, or these markers have not been exploited beyond study stages. Because CVDs globally affect millions of individuals, a method for confirmatory detection at onset is eagerly required for effective clinical management of patients. This review focuses on potential biomolecules that can indicate the presence of different CVDs and cardiac health status.


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