Inscrição na biblioteca: Guest
Portal Digital Begell Biblioteca digital da Begell eBooks Diários Referências e Anais Coleções de pesquisa
Atomization and Sprays
Fator do impacto: 1.262 FI de cinco anos: 1.518 SJR: 0.814 SNIP: 1.18 CiteScore™: 1.6

ISSN Imprimir: 1044-5110
ISSN On-line: 1936-2684

Volumes:
Volume 29, 2019 Volume 28, 2018 Volume 27, 2017 Volume 26, 2016 Volume 25, 2015 Volume 24, 2014 Volume 23, 2013 Volume 22, 2012 Volume 21, 2011 Volume 20, 2010 Volume 19, 2009 Volume 18, 2008 Volume 17, 2007 Volume 16, 2006 Volume 15, 2005 Volume 14, 2004 Volume 13, 2003 Volume 12, 2002 Volume 11, 2001 Volume 10, 2000 Volume 9, 1999 Volume 8, 1998 Volume 7, 1997 Volume 6, 1996 Volume 5, 1995 Volume 4, 1994 Volume 3, 1993 Volume 2, 1992 Volume 1, 1991

Atomization and Sprays

DOI: 10.1615/AtomizSpr.2019030744
pages 331-349

TIME-AVERAGED SPRAY ANALYSIS IN THE NEAR-FIELD REGION USING BROADBAND AND NARROWBAND X-RAY MEASUREMENTS

Danyu Li
Center for Multiphase Flow Research and Education, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, USA
Julie K. Bothell
Center for Multiphase Flow Research and Education, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, USA
Timothy B. Morgan
Center for Multiphase Flow Research and Education, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, USA
Nathanaël Machicoane
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-2600, USA
Alberto Aliseda
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-2600, USA
Alan L. Kastengren
Energy Systems Division, X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439, USA
Theodore J. Heindel
Center for Multiphase Flow Research and Education (CoMFRE), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-2161, USA

RESUMO

The characterization of a spray in the near-field region is challenging because of its high optical density in this region. X-ray based techniques, with weak scatter and strong penetration properties, can provide better characterization than optical assessment techniques in this region. In this work, the effects of various operating parameters on the optical depth (defined as the accumulated liquid thickness in the beam path times the X-ray attenuation coefficient) and spray profile of an atomizing spray in the near-field region are evaluated based on time-averaged X-ray analysis techniques. Controlling parameters in the spray structure include swirl ratio, liquid phase Reynolds number, and gas phase Reynolds number. Data from the broadband X-ray radiographs obtained using a tube source at Iowa State University and from focused beam measurements at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory are compared. The X-ray tube source at Iowa State University was operated at two different energy levels, which reveals that the X-ray tube source energy influenced the magnitude of the optical depth but did not change the shape of the distribution. For the no swirl condition, gas flow rate and liquid flow rate had opposite effects on the spray profile, where the spray widens as the gas flow rate increases and narrows as the liquid flow rate increases. As the swirl ratio increases from 0 to 1, the spray widens and then narrows. The critical swirl ratio at which the spray reaches its widest spread differs at different flow conditions.

Referências

  1. Ali, K. and Bilal, S., Surface Tensions and Thermodynamic Parameters of Surface Formation of Aqueous Salt Solutions: III. Aqueous Solution of KCl, KBr, and KI, Colloids Surfaces A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects, vol. 337,nos. 1-3,pp. 194-199,2009.

  2. Boas, F.E. and Fleischmann, D., CT Artifacts: Causes and Reduction Techniques, Imaging Med, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 229-240,2012.

  3. Bothell, J.K., Li, D., Morgan, T.B., Heindel, T. J., Aliseda, A., Machicoane, N., and Kastengren, A.L., Characterizing the Near-Field Region of a Spray Using White Beam and Focus Beam X-Ray Measurements, ICLASS 2018, 14th Triennial Int. Conf. on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Chicago, IL, 2018.

  4. Bothell, J.K., Machicoane, N., Li, D., Morgan, T.B., Aliseda, A., Kastengren, A.L., and Heindel, T.J., Experimental Techniques for the Near-Field Spray Region, Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 2019 (in review).

  5. Faeth, G.M., Structure and Atomization Properties of Dense Turbulent Sprays, Symposium (International) on Combustion, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 1345-1352,1991.

  6. Halls, B.R., Heindel, T.J., Kastengren, A.L., and Meyer, T.R., Evaluation of X-Ray Sources for Quantitative Two- and Three-Dimensional Imaging of Liquid Mass Distribution in Atomizing Sprays, Int. J. Multiphase Flow, vol. 59, pp. 113-120,2014a.

  7. Halls, B.R., Heindel, T.J., Meyer, T.R., and Kastengren, A.L., X-Ray Spray Diagnostics: Comparing Sources and Techniques, 50th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, AIAA 2012-1055, Nashville, TN, 2012.

  8. Halls, B.R., Morgan, T.B., Heindel, T.J., Meyer, T.R., and Kastengren, A.L., High-Speed Radiographic Spray Imaging with a Broadband Tube Source, AIAA Science and Technology Forum and Exposition 2014, National Harbor, MD, 2014b.

  9. Heindel, T.J., A Review of X-Ray Flow Visualization with Applications to Multiphase Flows, J. Fluids Eng., vol. 133, no. 7, p. 074001,2011.

  10. Heindel, T.J., X-Ray Imaging Techniques to Quantify Spray Characteristics in the near Field, Atomization Sprays, vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 1029-1059,2018.

  11. Heindel, T. J., Gray, J.N., and Jensen, T.C., An X-Ray System for Visualizing Fluid Flows, Flow Measure. Instrument., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 67-78,2008.

  12. Hopfinger, E.J. andLasheras, J.C., Explosive Breakup of a Liquid Jet by a Swirling Coaxial Gas Jet, Phys. Fluids, vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 1696-1698,1996.

  13. Hsieh, J., Computed Tomography: Principles, Design, Artifacts, and Recent Advances, Bellingham, WA: SPIE Press, 2003.

  14. Huck, P.D., Machicoane, N., Osuna-Orozco, R., and Aliseda, A., Experimental Characterization of a Canonical Two-Fluid Coaxial Atomizer, ICLASS 2018, 14th Triennial Int. Conf. on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Chicago, IL, 2018.

  15. Kastengren, A.L. and Powell, C.F., Synchrotron X-Ray Techniques for Fluid Dynamics, Experiments Fluids, vol. 55, no. 3, p. 1686,2014a.

  16. Kastengren, A.L., Powell, C.F., Arms, D., Dufresne, E.M., Gibson, H., and Wang, J., The 7BM Beamline at the APS: A Facility for Time-Resolved Fluid Dynamics Measurements, J. Synchrotron Rad., vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 654-657,2012.

  17. Kastengren, A.L., Powell, C.F., Wang, Y., Im, K.S., and Wang, J., X-Ray Radiography Measurements of Diesel Spray Structure at Engine-Like Ambient Density, Atomization Sprays, vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 1031-1044, 2009.

  18. Kastengren, A.L., Tilocco, F.Z., Duke, D., Powell, C.F., Zhang, X., and Moon, S., Time-Resolved X-Ray Radiography of Sprays from Engine Combustion Network Spray a Diesel Injector, Atomization Sprays, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 251-272,2014b.

  19. Kingston, T.A., Morgan, T.B., Geick, T.A., Robinson, T.R., and Heindel, T.J., A Cone-Beam Compensated Back-Projection Algorithm for X-Ray Particle Tracking Velocimetry, Flow Measure. Instrument., vol. 39, pp. 64-75,2014.

  20. Li, D., Bothell, J.K., Morgan, T.B., Heindel, T.J., Aliseda, A., Machicoane, N., and Kastengren, A.L., Quantitative Analysis of an Airblast Atomizer in the near-Field Region Using Broadband and Narrowband X-Ray Measurements, ICLASS 2018, 14th Triennial Int. Conf. on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Chicago, IL, 2018.

  21. Machicoane, N., Bothell, J.K., Li, D., Morgan, T.B., Heindel, T.J., Kastengren, A.L., and Aliseda, A., Synchrotron Radiography Characterization of the Liquid Core Dynamics in a Canonical Two-Fluid Coaxial Atomizer, Int. J. Multiphase Flow, vol. 115, pp. 1-8,2019.

  22. MacPhee, A.G., Tate, M.W., Powell, C.F., Yue, Y., Renzi, M.J., Ercan, A., Narayanan, S., Fontes, E., Walther, J., Schaller, J., and Gruner, S.M., X-Ray Imaging of Shock Waves Generated by High-Pressure Fuel Sprays, Science, vol. 295, no. 5558, pp. 1261-1263,2002.

  23. Matusik, K.E., Sforzo, B.A., Seong, H.J., Duke, D.J., Kastengren, A.L., Ilavsky, J., and Powell, C.F., X-Ray Measurements of Fuel Spray Specific Surface Area and Sauter Mean Diameter for Cavitating and Non-Cavitating Diesel Sprays, ICLASS 2018, 14th Triennial Int. Conf. on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Chicago, IL, 2018.

  24. Mishra, D.P., Planar-Laser-Influenced Fluorescence Method, in Experimental Combustion: An Introduction, Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, pp. 300-306,2014.

  25. Pedrotti, F.L., Pedrotti, L.S., and Pedrotti, L.M., Introduction to Optics, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007.

  26. Powell, C.F., Yue, Y., Poola, R., and Wang, J., Time-Resolved Measurements of Supersonic Fuel Sprays Using Synchrotron X-Rays, J. Synchrotron Rad., vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 356-360,2000.

  27. Pukelsheim F., The Three Sigma Rule, American Statistician, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 88-91,1994.

  28. Radke, C.D., Heindel, T. J., and Meyer, T.R., Effect of Injector Exit Geometry on Atomization of a Liquid-Liquid Double Swirl Coaxial Injector Using Non-Invasive Laser, Optical, and X-Ray Techniques, 50th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conf, Cleveland, OH, 2014.

  29. Som, S., and Aggarwal, S.K., Effects of Primary Breakup Modelling on Spray and Combustion Characteristics of Compression Ignition Engines, Combust. Flame, vol. 157,no. 6,pp. 1179-1193,2010.

  30. University of Washington, A Canonical Two-Fluid Coaxial Atomizer, Multiphase & Cardiovascular Flow Lab, accessed 2016, from http://depts.washington.edu/fluidlab/nozzle.shtml, 2011.

  31. Yue, Y., Powell, C.F., Poola, R., Wang, J., and Schaller, J.K., Quantitative Measurements of Diesel Fuel Spray Characteristics in the Near-Nozzle Region Using X-Ray Absorption, Atomization Sprays, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 471-490,2001.


Articles with similar content:

SELF-PULSATION CHARACTERISTICS OF A GAS-LIQUID SWIRL COAXIAL INJECTOR
Atomization and Sprays, Vol.19, 2009, issue 1
Poonggyoo Han, Vladimir Bazarov, Ji-Hyuk Im, Youngbin Yoon, Dongjun Kim
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF FUEL SPRAY VAPOR PHASE CHARACTERIZATION
Atomization and Sprays, Vol.1, 1991, issue 1
James E. Peters, James A. Drallmeier
SPATIALLY AND TEMPORALLY RESOLVED DISTRIBUTIONS OF LIQUID IN AN EFFERVESCENT SPRAY
Atomization and Sprays, Vol.22, 2012, issue 7
Miroslav Jicha, Jan Jedelsky
Preface: Cancer Cachexia, From Basic Research to Clinical Application: A Paradigmatic Translational Research Journey
Critical Reviews™ in Oncogenesis, Vol.17, 2012, issue 3
Giovanni Mantovani
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE MERGED ANGLE BY SPRAY INTERACTION FROM PRESSURE-SWIRL ATOMIZERS
Atomization and Sprays, Vol.23, 2013, issue 4
Moongeun Hong, Soo Yong Lee, Youngsun Yi