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International Journal on Algae
SJR: 0.219 SNIP: 0.261 CiteScore™: 0.24

ISSN Imprimir: 1521-9429
ISSN On-line: 1940-4328

International Journal on Algae

DOI: 10.1615/InterJAlgae.v9.i1.30
pages 41-63

Selecting appropriate bioindicators regarding Water Framework Directive guidelines for freshwaters -a Macedonian experience

Svetislav Krstic
Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, St. Ciril and Methodius University, Skopje Macedonia
Zorica Svircev
Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia and Montenegro
Zlatko Levkov
Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, St. Ciril and Methodius University, Skopje Macedonia
Teofil Nakov
Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, St. Ciril and Methodius University, Skopje Macedonia


In light of WFD (Water Framework Directive) guidelines for freshwater monitoring, this paper addresses the suggested organisms to be used in regular biomonitoring systems. Based on critical observations and reported obstacles in applying the various developed methods, but also on long-term research on freshwater ecosystems in Macedonia, the best bioindicator organism is proposed. In order to have an overall assessment of the investigated ecosystem, biomonitoring organisms (such as fish, macrophytes) or geomorphology reveal important informations. But, if the target is rapid, reliable, and cost effective bioindication of the water quality (with algae and benthic invertebrates only) have a most comprehensive application in history. Accumulated evidence that using benthic invertebrates pose a problem in obtaining reliable results triggered a recent CEN's revision of their applicability in monitoring programs. Therefore, amid all critically addressed disadvantages, algae (benthic diatoms in particular) are recommented as the best solution and basic methodology given for being included in regular bioindication programs in rapid detection of water quality of lotic and lenthic freshwater environments.

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