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Início - ICHMT DL Ano atual Arquivos Comitê executivo Centro Internacional para Transferência de Calor e Massa

Measurement of Pressure Temperature and Related Quantities in Water Reactor and other Two-Phase Flow Systems

Geoffrey F. Hewitt
Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK


This lecture includes the following topics:

    (1) Absolute pressure measurement. Here, the applications of absolute pressure measurements are discussed and the types of measuring device classified. The use of correlation techniques in signal analysis is reviewed and typical experimental data are shown.
    (2) Pressure drop measurements. After reviewing the applications and the normal pressure gradient equations, methods for pressure drop measurements are reviewed. Particular attention is given to the problems of tapping line content.
    (3) Momentum flux measurements. In the interpretation of pressure drop data, and in the calculation of the response of many forms of two-phase flow measuring device, a knowledge of the two-phase momentum flux is of great importance. The basic principles are first reviewed and then results from both steady state and transient measurements are discussed. Finally, a brief mention is made of local probes for velocity and momentum flux measurement.
    (4) Wall shear stress measurement. Measurement of the wall shear stress is also helpful in the interpretation of pressure drop data, and in giving an indication of the local hydrodynamic phenomena involved in the particular two-phase flow being studied. Methods for wall shear stress measurement are described and typical results given.
    (5) Fluid temperature measurement. The design and performance of thermocouples and other sensors are discussed and the problems of temperature measurement in non-equilibrium two-phase flow are reviewed. Finally, a brief review is given of Raman scattering techniques which are now becoming of importance in remote temperature measurement.

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