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Electrospinning of Micro- and Nanofibers: Fundamentals in Separation and Filtration Processes

Descrição

Atmospheric pollution caused by the uncontrolled development of industrial technologies, has now reached the danger point, past which its irreversible effect on natural factors and the resulting danger to living organisms and to future human generations starts outweighing the advantages of technological progress. The increase in the appearance and development of increasingly more ecology-damaging industries such as nuclear power generation, modern chemistry and biotechnologies, have resulted in the appearance of the so-called ecology-protection technologies. The danger of environmental pollution, leads to the optimal selection of environmental protection technologies and monitoring their effectiveness lies outside the competence of those who design and operate polluting industries and becomes increasingly more the prerogative of special expert and monitoring services. High-efficiency gas purification by Petryanov filters is one such universally acknowledged aerosol-removal technology. These filters are made of fibrous materials obtained by means of electrospinning. The substance and capabilities of this method, the use of the fibrous materials produced by it, the various and unique separating properties embodied in the present volume. The authors know that the present monograph will be useful not only to design and production engineers but also to a number of other experts, whose activity in the scientific, industrial, managerial, judicial, educational and humanitarian fields is related to some extent to the problem of protecting the environment and the health of the population. The following topics are included in this book: Mechanism of electrospinning of fibrous materials and the structure of these materials, Raw materials, Effect of the properties of the spinning solution on the course of formation and properties of fibers, Technology of electrospinning of fibrous materials (Petryanov Filters) and their analogs, Relationships governing the capture of aerosol particles by fibrous filters, Functional and performance properties of Petryanov-Filter (PF) materials and of their analogs, Construction, testing, manufacturing and assortment of fibrous PF-materials based high-efficiency aerosol filters, and Applications of modular high-efficiency aerosol filters and filtering stations employing PF filtering materials and their analogs for high-efficiency gas filtration.



488 pages, © 2007

Sumário:

Foreword
Introduction
Nomenclature
1 Mechanism of Electrospinning of Fibrous Materials and the Structure of These Materials
1.1 Design and Principal Stages of Electrospinning of Fibrous Materials
1.2 The Electrohydrodynamic Aspects of Electrospinning of Fibrous Material
1.2.1 Conditions for the Existence of a Steady Primary Jet
1.2.2 Acceleration of the Primary Jet
1.2.3 Splitting of the Primary Jet into Secondary Jets
1.2.4 The Electric Current in the Jet
1.3 The Electrogasdynamics of Electrospinning of Fibrous Materials
1.3.1 The Corona Discharge from the Primary Jet
1.3.2 The Role of the Space Electric Charge
1.3.3 The Volt-Ampere Characteristic
1.3.4 Formation of the Fibrous Layer
1.4 Heat and Mass Transfer and Phase Transitions in Electrospinning of Fibrous Materials
2 The Raw Materials
2.1 Fiber-Forming Polymers
2.2 Solvents
2.3 Beneficial Additives to Spinning Solutions
3 Effect of the Properties of the Spinning Solution on the Course of Formation and Properties of Fibers
3. 1 Spheres of the Effect of the Macromolecular Factor on the Course of Dry Formation of Fibers and the Specifics Associated with Electrospinning of Fibrous Materials
3. 2 Rheological Properties of Macromolecule Solutions
3. 2. 2 Viscosity Anomaly
3. 2. 3 The Relaxation Behavior of Rheological Properties, of the Viscoelasticity and High Elasticity
3. 2. 1 The Initial and the Characteristic Viscosities
3.3 Role of the Macromolecular Factor in Electrospinning of Fibrous Materials
3.3.1 Effect on the Formation of the Primary and Secondary Jets
3.3.2 Effect on Formation of the Fibrous Layer
4 Technology of Electrospinning of Fibrous Materials (Petryanov Filters) and Their Analogs
4.1 General Characterization
4.1.1 Process and Equipment Layout
4.1.2 Nature of Technology
4.2 Industrial Equipment
4.2.1 Principal Equipment
4.2.2 Preparatory Equipment
4.2.3 Auxiliary Equipment
4.3 The Manufacturing Process
5 Relationships Governing the Capture of Aerosol Particles by Fibrous Filters
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Principal Properties of Aerosols
5.2.1 Definitions
5.2.2 Sources of Aerosols
5.2.3 Radioactive Aerosols
5.2.4 Shape, Dimensions, Density and Chemical Composition of Aerosol Particles
5.2.5 The Particle Size Distribution
5.2.7 Specifics of the Formation of Radioactive Aerosols
5.2.8 Transformation of Dimensions in Aerosol Particles
5.2.9 Electrical Properties of Aerosols
5.2.6 Formation of Aerosols
5.3 Relationships Governing the Capture of Aerosol Particles by Fibrous Filters
5.3.1 Terminology and Definitions
5.3.2 Certain Important Parameters
5.3.3 Mechanisms of Particle Capture by Filter Fibers
5.3.4 The Most Penetrant Size
5.3.5 Effect of Parameters of the Filter and Carrier Gas on the Capture Effectiveness
5.3.6 The Pressure Drop across a Fibrous Filter
5.3.7 Unsteady-State Filtration Effects
5.3.8 Structural and Strength Characteristics of Fibrous Materials
5.3.9 Specification of Fibrous Materials Used in High-Effectiveness Aerosol Filters
5.3.10 Optimization of the Structure of Filtering Materials
6 Functional and Performance Properties of Petryanov-Filter (PF) Materials and of Their Analogs
6.1 The Physical Characteristics and the Microstructure
6.2 The Electric Charge
6.3 Mechanical Properties
6.4 The Filtering Properties
6.5 Other Properties
7 Construction, Testing, Manufacturing and Assortment of Fibrous PF-Materials Based High-Efficiency Aerosol Filters
7.1 Compactness and Cost Effectiveness of Filters
7.1.1 Primary Goals and Key Principles of Filter Design
7.1.2 Effect of Configuration of the Fibrous Layer on the Hydrodynamic Resistance and Penetration of the Filter
7.1.3 Design of Filters with a Configured Fibrous Layer
7.1.4 Potential for Improving the Compactness and Cost-Effectiveness of Filters Made of PF Materials
7.2 Construction and Sealing Filters
7.2.1 The Modular High-Efficiency Aerosol Filters (HEMF)
7.2.2 Filter Stations
7.3 Testing Modular Filters and Filter Stations
7.3.1 Standard Test Conditions and Test Aerosols
7.3.2 The Test Equipment
7.4 Manufacture and Assortment of Modular Filters
8 Applications of Modular High-Efficiency Aerosol Filters and Filtering Stations Employing PF Filtering Materials and Their Analogs for High-Efficiency Gas Filtration
8.1 Fields of Application, Purposes, Nature, and Methods of Solving Practical Problems
8.2 Examples and Results of Use
8.2.1 Purification of Industrial Gases and Reagents
8.2.2 Purification of Gases Used in Measuring Equipment and in Pneumatic Control Systems
8.2.3 Purification of Ventilation Air of Working Premises of Potentially Dangerous or "Clean" Manufacturing Facilities, Medical Institutions, and Other Objects
8.2.4 Other Examples of Applications
Conclusion
Index


ISSN: 978-1-56700-241-6