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SEVERE ACCIDENT RESEARCH ACTIVITIES IN JAPAN

DOI: 10.1615/ICHMT.1995.RadTransfProcHeatMassTransfSevNuclReactAcc.360

Jun Sugimoto
Department of Reactor Safety Research, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken, Japan 319-11

Abstract

Severe accident research in Japan was initiated soon after the TMI-2 accident in 1979 and has been accelerated after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Japanese research activities aim at the confirmation of the safety margin, the quantification of the risk, and the evaluation of the effectiveness of the accident management measures of nuclear power reactors.
JAERI has conducted wide range of severe accident research activities both in experiment and analysis, such as core degradation behavior, fission product behavior both in coolant system and containment, containment integrity and assessment of accident management measures. For the core degradation behavior JAERI has conducted in-pile experiments using NSRR reactor. Basic experiment on deposition of aerosols in the piping has been conducted. A new project on FP aerosol behaviors in the primary piping named WIND Program has been initiated aiming at the revaporization of aerosol due to decay heating. Ex-vessel phenomena such as molten core and coolant interaction, molten core and concrete interaction have been investigated in ALPHA Program. In order to investigate the effectiveness of the preventive accident management measures, ROSA-V Program has been initiated. The effectiveness of the mitigative accident management measures such as water addition onto the molten core has been investigated in ALPHA Program.
NUPEC is conducting severe accident research focusing containment integrity related to mitigative accident management. The objective of the containment integrity test is to reduce the unknowns regrading the mitigative accident management such as evaluation of peak pressure during hydrogen burning, ultimate strength and leakage conditions in the containment vessel, effectiveness of fission products removal under accident management conditions and fuel-coolant interaction during debris cooling. NUPEC also has carried out level 1 and 2 PSAs for Japanese typical BWR and PWR plants, which are used as reference PSAs in review on IPEs done by utilities. The utilities have also made extensive efforts on the evaluation of accident management measures, as well as level-2 analysis.
In the present paper, recent severe accident research activities in Japan is presented with the emphasize of large uncertainties still remaining in some of the severe accident phenomenologies.

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