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THERMOELECTRIC MICROCOOLERS−ACTIVE THERMAL CONTROL MODULES

DOI: 10.1615/AnnualRevHeatTransfer.2015011140
pages 329-370

Michael Manno
University of Maryland, College Park, MD

Bao Yang
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, Maryland, College Park, MD USA

Avram Bar-Cohen
Laboratory of the Thermal Management of Electronics, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455; and Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), Microsystems Technology Office, University of Maryland, College Park, MD


KEY WORDS: Thermoelectric Cooling, Hotspots, Thermal Management, Peltier Cooling

Abstract

Increased power density and nonuniform heat dissipation present a thermal challenge in modern electronic devices. The nonhomogeneous heating in chips results in areas of elevated temperature, or hotspots, and even if small and localized, hotspots can limit overall device performance. Therefore, hotspot cooling techniques are needed, especially in high-performance microprocessors and power electronic applications, such as IGBTs and HEMT power amplifiers. Thermoelectric devices have been used in several niche cooling applications, but historically have lacked the heat pumping capacity needed to remove modern high heat flux hotspots. Many approaches including modification of traditional modules, development ofadvanced thermoelectric materials, thin film thermoelectric cooling, minicontact enhanced thermoelectric cooling, planer thermoelectric configurations, and transient thermoelectric cooling are currently being researched with the goal of developing more effective thermoelectric cooling strategies. Recent achievements in these areas will be presented and the potential for high heat flux hotspot cooling will be discussed.

ARHT Digital Library

Illustration of composite TIMs with a percolation of spherical nanoparticles, and high aspect ratio nanowires. NANOSTRUCTURED THERMAL INTERFACES
Photograph of copper/diamond sintered wick structure. RECENT ADVANCES IN TWO-PHASE THERMAL GROUND PLANES
The microchannel with a single pillar used by Jung et al., and an SEM image of the pillar with a flow control slit at 180 deg (facing downstream). ADVANCED CHIP-LEVEL LIQUID HEAT EXCHANGERS
Schematics of thermal boundary conductance calculations. NONEQUILIRIUM MOLECULAR DYNAMICS METHODS FOR LATTICE HEAT CONDUCTION CALCULATIONS