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THERMOPHYSICAL PHENOMENA IN METAL ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING BY SELECTIVE LASER MELTING: FUNDAMENTALS, MODELING, SIMULATION, AND EXPERIMENTATION

DOI: 10.1615/AnnualRevHeatTransfer.2018019042
pages 241-316

Christoph Meier
Mechanosynthesis Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, 02139, Massachusetts, USA

Ryan W. Penny
Mechanosynthesis Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, 02139, Massachusetts, USA

Yu Zou
Mechanosynthesis Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, 02139, Massachusetts, USA

Jonathan S. Gibbs
Mechanosynthesis Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, 02139, Massachusetts, USA

A. John Hart
Mechanosynthesis Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, 02139, Massachusetts, USA


KEY WORDS: selective laser melting, metal additive manufacturing, modeling and simulation, experiments

Abstract

Among the many additive manufacturing (AM) processes for metallic materials, selective laser melting (SLM) is arguably the most versatile in terms of its potential to realize complex geometries along with tailored microstructure. However, the complexity of the SLM process, and the need for predictive relation of powder and process parameters to the part properties, demands further development of computational and experimental methods. This review addresses the fundamental physical phenomena of SLM, with a special emphasis on the associated thermal behavior. Simulation and experimental methods are discussed according to three primary categories. First, macroscopic approaches aim to answer questions at the component level and consider for example the determination of residual stresses or dimensional distortion effects prevalent in SLM. Second, mesoscopic approaches focus on the detection of defects such as excessive surface roughness, residual porosity, or inclusions that occur at the mesoscopic length scale of individual powder particles. Third, microscopic approaches investigate the metallurgical microstructure evolution resulting from the high temperature gradients and extreme heating and cooling rates induced by the SLM process. Consideration of physical phenomena on all of these three length scales is mandatory to establish the understanding needed to realize high part quality in many applications, and to fully exploit the potential of SLM and related metal AM processes.

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