THERMOPHYSICAL PHENOMENA IN METAL ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING BY SELECTIVE LASER MELTING: FUNDAMENTALS, MODELING, SIMULATION, AND EXPERIMENTATION
Among the many additive manufacturing (AM) processes for metallic materials, selective laser melting (SLM) is arguably the most versatile in terms of its potential to realize complex geometries along with tailored microstructure. However, the complexity of the SLM process, and the need for predictive relation of powder and process parameters to the part properties, demands further development of computational and experimental methods. This review addresses the fundamental physical phenomena of SLM, with a special emphasis on the associated thermal behavior. Simulation and experimental methods are discussed according to three primary categories. First, macroscopic approaches aim to answer questions at the component level and consider for example the determination of residual stresses or dimensional distortion effects prevalent in SLM. Second, mesoscopic approaches focus on the detection of defects such as excessive surface roughness, residual porosity, or inclusions that occur at the mesoscopic length scale of individual powder particles. Third, microscopic approaches investigate the metallurgical microstructure evolution resulting from the high temperature gradients and extreme heating and cooling rates induced by the SLM process. Consideration of physical phenomena on all of these three length scales is mandatory to establish the understanding needed to realize high part quality in many applications, and to fully exploit the potential of SLM and related metal AM processes.
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Illustration of composite TIMs with a percolation of spherical nanoparticles, and high aspect ratio nanowires. NANOSTRUCTURED THERMAL INTERFACES
Photograph of copper/diamond sintered wick structure. RECENT ADVANCES IN TWO-PHASE THERMAL GROUND PLANES
The microchannel with a single pillar used by Jung et al., and an SEM image of the pillar with a flow control slit at 180 deg (facing downstream). ADVANCED CHIP-LEVEL LIQUID HEAT EXCHANGERS
Schematics of thermal boundary conductance calculations. NONEQUILIRIUM MOLECULAR DYNAMICS METHODS FOR LATTICE HEAT CONDUCTION CALCULATIONS
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