Library Subscription: Guest
Begell Digital Portal Begell Digital Library eBooks Journals References & Proceedings Research Collections

THERMAL TRANSPORT IN PHASE CHANGE MEMORY MATERIALS

DOI: 10.1615/AnnualRevHeatTransfer.v16.130
pages 397-428

Elah Bozorg-Grayeli
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA

John P. Reifenberg
Alphabet Energy, San Francisco, CA 94103, USA

Mehdi Asheghi
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA

H.-S. Philip Wong
Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA

Kenneth E. Goodson
Thermosciences Division, Mechanical Engineering Department, Stanford University Bldg. 530, 440 Escondido Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-3030, USA

Abstract

Phase change memory uses brief pulses of electrical current to induce phase transitions in chalcogenide material regions with dimensions near or even far below 50 nm. The strongly differing electrical conductivities of the crystalline and amorphous phases allow data storage at densities in excess of terabits per square inch. Nanoscale conduction heat transfer governs the figures of merit in these devices, which include the energy and time required for switching, and has received much attention through both measurements and simulations over the last two decades. This chapter reviews the recent progress on thermal conduction phenomena relevant for phase change memory, including a summary of the physical mechanisms involved as well as the most useful simulation and measurement techniques. Experimental work has focused on separating the intrinsic and boundary resistances of thin film phase change materials, as well as the individual contributions of electrons and phonons to the effective conductivity of the hexagonal crystalline phase. Simulations have focused on improving device geometries and switching characteristics, and continue to need improvements in the areas of crystallization modeling and the impact of phase distribution on electrical and thermal transport. Future research requires a more detailed understanding of electron-phonon coupling and its impact on electrical and thermal conduction in the crystalline phase, as well as greater insight into thermoelectric transport and its impact on device behavior. This progress will be critical for the development of innovative memory strategies including multibit storage.

ARHT Digital Library

Illustration of composite TIMs with a percolation of spherical nanoparticles, and high aspect ratio nanowires. NANOSTRUCTURED THERMAL INTERFACES
Photograph of copper/diamond sintered wick structure. RECENT ADVANCES IN TWO-PHASE THERMAL GROUND PLANES
The microchannel with a single pillar used by Jung et al., and an SEM image of the pillar with a flow control slit at 180 deg (facing downstream). ADVANCED CHIP-LEVEL LIQUID HEAT EXCHANGERS
Schematics of thermal boundary conductance calculations. NONEQUILIRIUM MOLECULAR DYNAMICS METHODS FOR LATTICE HEAT CONDUCTION CALCULATIONS