Доступ предоставлен для: Guest
Портал Begell Электронная Бибилиотека e-Книги Журналы Справочники и Сборники статей Коллекции
Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
Импакт фактор: 1.241 5-летний Импакт фактор: 1.349 SJR: 0.356 SNIP: 0.613 CiteScore™: 1.61

ISSN Печать: 0731-8898
ISSN Онлайн: 2162-6537

Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology

DOI: 10.1615/JEnvironPatholToxicolOncol.2019028792
pages 165-172

Analysis of Lead, Cadmium, and Nickel in Blood Donors in Relation to Smoking—A Comparative Study

Achummantakath Hashim
Lecturer/Toxicologist, Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Yenepoya (Deemed to be University), Mangalore, Dakshina Karnataka, India
Haneena Fathima
Medical Officer, RHCDC, Yenepoya Medical College Hospital, Yenepoya (Deemed to be University), Mangalore, Dakshina Karnataka, India
Rashid C. S. Muhammed
Medical Officer, RHCDC, Yenepoya Medical College Hospital, Yenepoya (Deemed to be University), Mangalore, Dakshina Karnataka, India
D. R. Dsouzac Neevan
Biostatistician, Associate Professor, Biostatistics, KS Hegde Medical Academy, Nitte (Deemed to be University), Mangalore, Dakshina Karnataka, India

Краткое описание

Donor blood is usually screened for some risk factors, such as hepatitis, HIV, and malarial parasites, but it is not routinely screened for heavy metals although their adverse effects on the human body have been proved by a number of studies. In this study, an attempt was made to determine the effect of smoking on concentration of cadmium, nickel, and lead in donor blood. A semistructured questionnaire was prepared and given to participants. It showed that 79% (two groups: 65 smokers and 65 nonsmokers) smoked at least one cigarette per day. Collected blood samples were then subjected to atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). In comparing blood levels between smoking and nonsmoking participants, we noted a high positive correlation between lead and nickel concentrations. There were statistically significant correlations between cadmium, lead, and nickel concentrations in the blood of smokers and nonsmokers. Moreover, because a substantial percentage of blood donors may be smokers and blood donation does not always meet demand, it would be difficult to completely exclude smokers from donating blood. Our findings indicate the need to screen for heavy metals when transfusing blood to the elderly, neonates, and infants, and to avoid transfusion of blood and blood products if levels are in the toxic range.


  1. Bernhard D, Rossmann A, Wick G. Metals in cigarette smoke. IUBMB Live. 2005;57:805-9.

  2. Popko, J, Olszewski S, Hukalowicz K, Markiewicz R, Borawska MH, Szeparowicz P. Lead, cadmium, copper and zinc concentrations in blood and hair of mothers of children with locomotor system malformations. Pol J Environ Stud. 2003;12:375-9.

  3. Baecklund M, Pedersen NL, Bjorkman L, Vahter M. Variation in blood concentrations of cadmium and lead in the elderly. Environ Res. 1999;80:222-30.

  4. Bulleora S, Manalo M. Lead levels in blood bank blood. Arch Environ Health. 2001;56(4):312-3.

  5. Sundararajan S, Blatz AM, Dearborn DG, Varnes AW, Bearer CF, El Metwally D. Toxic metal contamination of banked blood designated for neonatal transfusion. J Clin Toxicol. 2015;5:267.

  6. Akinci I, Tutkun E, Turksoy VA, Yilmaz H, Yuksel B, Kayaalti Z, Soylemezoglu T, Yilmaz H, Abusoglu S. Toxic metal and essential trace element levels of blood donors. J Clin Anal Med. 2016;7(6):816-9.

  7. Brockhaus A, Freier I, Ewers U, Jermann E, Dolgner R. Levels of cadmium and lead in blood in relation to smoking, sex, occupation, and other factors in an adult population of the FRG. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1983;52(2): 167-75.

  8. Zielhuis RL, Stuik EJ, Herber RFM, Salle HJ, Verberk MM, Posma FD, Jager JH. Smoking habits and levels of lead and cadmium in blood in urban women. Int Arch Occup Environ Heath. 1977;39:53.

  9. Ashraf MW. Levels of heavy metals in popular cigarette brands and exposure to these metals via smoking. Sci World J. 2012;2012: 729430.

  10. Erzen, I, Kragelj LZ. Cadmium concentrations in blood in a group of male recruits in Slovenia related to smoking habits. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2006;76(2):278-84.

  11. Mussalo-Rauhamaa H, Salmela SS, Leppaen A, Pyysalo H. Cigarettes as a source of some trace and heavy metals and pesticides in man. Arch Environ Health. 1986;41:49-55.

  12. Babalola OO, Adekunle IM, Okonji RE, Ejim-Eze EE, Terebo O. Selected heavy metals in blood of male Nigerian smokers. Pak J Biol Sci. 2007;10(20):3730-3.

  13. Elinder CG, Friberg L, Lind B, Jawaid M. Lead and cadmium levels in blood samples from the general population of Sweden. Environ Res. 1983;30(1):233-53.

  14. Jarup L. Hazards of heavy metal contamination. Br Med Bull. 2003;68:167-82.

  15. Sharma RP, Kjellstrom T, McKenzie JM. Cadmium in blood and urine among smokers and nonsmokers with high cadmium intake via food. Toxicology. 1983;29(1-2): 163-71.

  16. Radisch B, Luck W, Nau H. Cadmium concentrations in milk and blood of smoking mothers. Toxicol Lett. 1987;36(2):147-52.

  17. Stojanovic D, Nikic D, Lazarevic K. The level of nickel in smoker's blood and urine. Cent Eur J Publ Health. 2004;12(4):187-9.

  18. Torjussen W, Zachariasen H, Andersen I. Cigarette smoking and nickel exposure. J Environ Monit. 2003;5(2):198-201.

  19. Bache CA, Lisk DJ, Doss GJ, Hoffmann D, Adams JD. Cadmium and nickel in mainstream particulates of cigarettes containing tobacco grown on a low-cadmium soil-sludge mixture. J Toxicol Environ Health. 1985;16(3-4):547-52.

  20. Khlifi R, Olmedo P, Gil F, Tounsi MF, Chakroun A, Rebai A, Hamza-Chaffai A. Blood nickel and chromium levels in association with smoking and occupational exposure among head and neck cancer patients in Tunisia. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2013;20(11):8282-94.

  21. Afridi HI, Kazi TG, Kazi NG, Jamali MK, Arain MB, Baig JA, Kandhro GA, Wadhwa SK, Shah AQ. Evaluation of cadmium, lead, nickel and zinc status in biological samples of smokers and non-smokers hypertensive patients. J Hum Hypertens. 2010;24:34-43.

Articles with similar content:

Inhaled Amorphous Silica Particulates:What Do We Know About Their Toxicological Profiles?
Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology, Vol.20, 2001, issue Suppl.1
David B. Warheit
International Heat Transfer Conference 5, Vol.6, 1974, issue
R. E. Henry, E. A. Spleha , D. J. Quinn
Mutagenic Potential of Cypermethrin in Mouse Dominant Lethal Assay
Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology, Vol.21, 2002, issue 3
Pankaj Taneja, Yogeshwer Shukla
Health and Risk Assessment by ICP-OES of Heavy Metals and Trace Minerals in Commercial Mushrooms Marketed in China
International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, Vol.19, 2017, issue 7
Baojun (Bruce) Xu, Mengyi Huang, Huansong Zeng
Sister Chromatid Exchanges and Micronuclei in Lymphocytes of Operating Room Personnel Occupationally Exposed to Enfluorane and Nitrous Oxide
Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology, Vol.20, 2001, issue 2
Stefano Cencetti, Giuseppina Scassellati-Sforzolini, Cristina Fatigoni, Francesco Maria Cerami, Massimiliano Marcarelli, Silvano Monarca, Rossana Pasquini, Francesco Donato