Доступ предоставлен для: Guest
Портал Begell Электронная Бибилиотека e-Книги Журналы Справочники и Сборники статей Коллекции
International Journal of Energetic Materials and Chemical Propulsion
ESCI SJR: 0.149 SNIP: 0.16 CiteScore™: 0.29

ISSN Печать: 2150-766X
ISSN Онлайн: 2150-7678

International Journal of Energetic Materials and Chemical Propulsion

DOI: 10.1615/IntJEnergeticMaterialsChemProp.v9.i4.30
pages 327-339


Matthew L. Gross
Naval Air Warfare Center, Weapons Division, China Lake, California 9355-6100 USA
Ephraim B. Washburn
Naval Air Warfare Center, Weapons Division, China Lake, California 93555, USA
Merrill W. Beckstead
Brigham Young University, Provo Utah USA

Краткое описание

The complexities of the flame structure above an ammonium perchlorate (AP) and hydroxy- terminated-polybutadiene (HTPB) composite propellant have been elucidated, using a two- dimensional, detailed kinetic model. The model utilizes a vorticity formulation of the transport equations and includes mass and energy coupling between the condensed and gas phases, and a detailed gas-phase kinetic mechanism consisting of 37 species and 127 reactions. Numerical studies have been performed to examine particle-size and pressure effects on the flame structure above an AP/HTPB surface. The combination of AP with a binder/fuel results in a significantly enhanced burning rate relative to monopropellant AP, and this effect increases as AP particle size decreases. The modeled flame structure was found to be qualitatively similar to the Beckstead-Derr-Price (BDP) model. Three different combustion zones were predicted based on particle size: the AP monopropellant limit, the diffusion flame region, and the premixed limit. Calculations varying pressure further illustrate the dynamic nature of AP propellant combustion; as pressure increases, the premixed cutoff size decreases. Results are consistent with experimental observations and provide mechanistic insights into AP's unique combustion properties. Calculations show promise in predicting formulistic effects using high-fidelity models.


  1. Beckstead, M. W., Derr, R. L., and Price, C. F., A model of composite solid-propellant combustion based on multiple flames.

  2. Beckstead, M. W., A model for solid propellant combustion.

  3. Cohen, N. S. and Strand, L. D., An improved model for the combustion of AP composite propellants.

  4. Dworkin, S. B., Bennett, B. A. V., and Smooke, M. D., A mass-conserving vorticity-velocity formulation with application to nonreacting and reacting flows.

  5. Foster, R. L. and Miller, R. R., The influence of the fine AP/binder matrix on composite propellant ballistic properties.

  6. Gross, M. L. and Beckstead, M. W., Fundamental diffusion flame calculations based on detailed kinetics for an AP composite propellant utilizing a vorticity-velocity formulation.

  7. Gross, M. L. and Beckstead, M. W., Diffusion flame calculations for composite propellants predicting particle-size effects.

  8. Massa, L., Jackson, T. L., and Buckmaster, J., New kinetics for a model of heterogeneous propellant combustion.

  9. Miller, R. R., Donohue, M. T., and Martin, J. R., Control of solids distribution 1 - Ballistics of non-aluminized HTPB propellants.

  10. Renie, J. P., Condon, J. A., and Osborn, J. R., Oxidizer size distribution effects on propellant combustion.