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Critical Reviews™ in Immunology
Импакт фактор: 1.352 5-летний Импакт фактор: 3.347 SJR: 1.022 SNIP: 0.55 CiteScore™: 2.19

ISSN Печать: 1040-8401
ISSN Онлайн: 2162-6472

Выпуски:
Том 39, 2019 Том 38, 2018 Том 37, 2017 Том 36, 2016 Том 35, 2015 Том 34, 2014 Том 33, 2013 Том 32, 2012 Том 31, 2011 Том 30, 2010 Том 29, 2009 Том 28, 2008 Том 27, 2007 Том 26, 2006 Том 25, 2005 Том 24, 2004 Том 23, 2003 Том 22, 2002 Том 21, 2001 Том 20, 2000 Том 19, 1999 Том 18, 1998 Том 17, 1997 Том 16, 1996 Том 15, 1995 Том 14, 1994

Critical Reviews™ in Immunology

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevImmunol.v24.i5.10
24 pages

Effect of Age on the Immunoglobulin Class Switch

Daniela Frasca
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Miami School of Medicine, P.O. Box 016960 (R-138), Miami, FL33101
Richard L. Riley
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Miami School of Medicine, P.O. Box 016960 (R-138), Miami, FL33101
Bonnie B. Blomberg
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33101, USA

Краткое описание

Aging represents a complex remodelling in which both specific and innate immunity deteriorate. Age-related changes in humoral immunity involve reduced vaccine responses and increased production of auto-antibodies. Although T-cell alterations play a significant role in age-related humoral immune changes, alterations in B cells also occur. In this review, we provide an overview of age-related changes in B-cell functions and markers, including transcription factors, and also discuss controversies in the field of B-cell aging. We summarize our recent results, showing that splenic B cells from senescent mice are deficient in production of secondary isotypes (IgG1, IgG2a, IgG3, IgE), class switch recombination (CSR), and expression of the transcription factor E47. We also demonstrate that there is more Id2 (a negative regulator of E47) in old activated B cells. E47 is required for CSR, at least in part, via expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). Our studies show that impaired induction of E47, and, subsequently, AID, contribute to poor CSR and production of secondary isotypes in senescence. We also present new data indicating the absence of DNA switch region excision circles for CSR in old activated B cells, confirming the location of the defect at the DNA endonucleolytic step. And, finally, we show that there is no change in NF-κB or Blimp-1 in old vs young stimulated B cells.


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