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Critical Reviews™ in Immunology
Импакт фактор: 1.352 5-летний Импакт фактор: 3.347 SJR: 0.657 SNIP: 0.55 CiteScore™: 2.19

ISSN Печать: 1040-8401
ISSN Онлайн: 2162-6472

Выпуски:
Том 39, 2019 Том 38, 2018 Том 37, 2017 Том 36, 2016 Том 35, 2015 Том 34, 2014 Том 33, 2013 Том 32, 2012 Том 31, 2011 Том 30, 2010 Том 29, 2009 Том 28, 2008 Том 27, 2007 Том 26, 2006 Том 25, 2005 Том 24, 2004 Том 23, 2003 Том 22, 2002 Том 21, 2001 Том 20, 2000 Том 19, 1999 Том 18, 1998 Том 17, 1997 Том 16, 1996 Том 15, 1995 Том 14, 1994

Critical Reviews™ in Immunology

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevImmunol.v16.i3.30
pages 277-309

Regulation of Immune Responses of the Intestinal Mucosa

Maria T. Abreu-Martin
Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California 90048
Stephan R. Targan
Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California 90048

Краткое описание

The largest lymphoid organ in the body, the intestine, is also the most intriguing and complex. At its root, the gastrointestinal immune system must permit the absorption of nutrients while protecting against invasion of pathogens. In the process, it must sort through vast antigenic challenges and orchestrate an immune response appropriate to the occasion. Whereas the general outline of mucosal immunity has been defined with respect to the phenotype of the immune cells that compose the mucosal immune system, the ontogeny of these immune cells, and the regulation of IgA responses, the details that control mucosal T cell activation and suppression that coordinate this elaborate mucosal network continue to perplex. This review highlights unique aspects of T cell regulation within the intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) and lamina propria lymphocyte (LPL) compartments when conpared with lymphocytes in the periphery. In general, IEL are largely extrathymically derived, have a limited TCR repertoire capable of recognizing common microbiologic Ags, and demonstrate predominantly cytolytic functions. LPL are thymically derived, highly activated lymphocytes with predominantly Th2 phenotype. LPL activation is distinct from classic memory T cells in their CD2/CD28 predominance that likely contributes to limiting TCR/CD3-mediated signals in the mucosa. Ag presentation in the gut may involve nonclassical, nonpolymorphic class I-like molecules expressed by epithelial cells that may positively select extrathymically derived lymphocyte populations as well as tolerize self-reactive lymphocytes. These special features of the mucosal immune system are integrated to downregulate immune responses to ubiquitous lumenal Ags.


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