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Critical Reviews™ in Immunology
Импакт фактор: 1.352 5-летний Импакт фактор: 3.347 SJR: 1.022 SNIP: 0.55 CiteScore™: 2.19

ISSN Печать: 1040-8401
ISSN Онлайн: 2162-6472

Выпуски:
Том 39, 2019 Том 38, 2018 Том 37, 2017 Том 36, 2016 Том 35, 2015 Том 34, 2014 Том 33, 2013 Том 32, 2012 Том 31, 2011 Том 30, 2010 Том 29, 2009 Том 28, 2008 Том 27, 2007 Том 26, 2006 Том 25, 2005 Том 24, 2004 Том 23, 2003 Том 22, 2002 Том 21, 2001 Том 20, 2000 Том 19, 1999 Том 18, 1998 Том 17, 1997 Том 16, 1996 Том 15, 1995 Том 14, 1994

Critical Reviews™ in Immunology

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevImmunol.2019029632
pages 491-503

The TRAIL: TRAILshort Axis in HIV Immunopathology

Fatma Aboulnasr
Division of Infectious Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905
Geeta Paranjape
Continuing Studies, Duke University, Durham, NC, 22708
Andrew D. Badley
Division of Infectious Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905

Краткое описание

Accelerated loss of HIV-infected and uninfected CD4 T cells is a hallmark of HIV infection that leads to severe immunodeficiency, rendering the host susceptible to opportunistic infections and malignancies. Obstacles to eradicating HIV involve the virus's ability to remain in a quiescent state as latent viral reservoirs and manipulate host defenses to benefit viral survival and persistence of the infected reservoir. Several mechanisms cause CD4 T-cell depletion and recent studies demonstrate the role of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in this process. Expression of TRAIL and its receptors is upregulated in response to HIV infection. TRAIL interacts with its receptors to activate apoptotic pathways. We recently demonstrated the presence of TRAILshort, a novel splice variant of full-length TRAIL, in the serum of HIV-infected patients. A unique carboxy-terminus allows TRAILshort to bind to death receptors without inducing apoptosis and prevents TRAIL from binding to its receptors, thereby conferring resistance to TRAIL-mediated death. In this review, we describe how the TRAIL: TRAILshort receptor axis modulates apoptosis of different types of immune cells in the context of HIV infection. We also discuss how TRAIL and TRAILshort contribute to the activation of immune cells involved in host defense against HIV and mechanisms that HIV has evolved to manipulate TRAIL for its survival.


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