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Critical Reviews™ in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
Импакт фактор: 2.9 5-летний Импакт фактор: 3.72 SJR: 0.736 SNIP: 0.551 CiteScore™: 2.43

ISSN Печать: 0743-4863
ISSN Онлайн: 2162-660X

Выпуски:
Том 36, 2019 Том 35, 2018 Том 34, 2017 Том 33, 2016 Том 32, 2015 Том 31, 2014 Том 30, 2013 Том 29, 2012 Том 28, 2011 Том 27, 2010 Том 26, 2009 Том 25, 2008 Том 24, 2007 Том 23, 2006 Том 22, 2005 Том 21, 2004 Том 20, 2003 Том 19, 2002 Том 18, 2001 Том 17, 2000 Том 16, 1999 Том 15, 1998 Том 14, 1997 Том 13, 1996 Том 12, 1995

Critical Reviews™ in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems

DOI: 10.1615/CritRevTherDrugCarrierSyst.v21.i2.10
30 pages

Caveolae—An Alternative Endocytotic Pathway for Targeted Drug Delivery

Gyorgy Bathori
Department of Physiology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary
Laszlo Cervenak
Third Department of Internal Medicine, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary
Istvan Karadi
Third Department of Internal Medicine, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary

Краткое описание

Caveolae are bottleshape-like invaginations of the plasma membrane. After internalization they are involved in endocytosis, transcytosis, potocytosis, and pinocytosis. Our recently expanded knowledge has made clear that various molecules and macromolecular complexes enter the cells after docking on caveolar receptors, before subsequent internalization of the caveolae. The internalization is initiated by the ligand receptor interaction. Folate, cholesterol, serum lipoproteins, and liposomes are among the most common examples. It is important to point out that, in contrast to the classic clathrin-dependent endocytosis, the caveolar internalization pathway seems to avoid the lysosomes. Internalized caveolae fuse with caveosomes, and the caveosomes deliver their contents into other subcellular (non-lysosomal) compartments. The bypass of the acidic and harmful milieu might be a major advantage for drug delivery via the caveolar pathway. Not all cell types have caveolae. Cells, where the Caveolin I protein is not expressed, do not develop caveolar invaginations. However, these cells have caveolar-equivalent plasma membrane domains, so-called "lipid rafts." Lipid rafts are assembled from the same lipid constituents and proteins as caveolae, but they are flat. Specific ligands may also dock on appropriate receptors of the raft domain. As a complication, certain types of ligand-covered raft receptors can migrate to clathrin-coated pits and get internalized via clathrin-coated vesicles. Nevertheless, suitable ligands or antibodies developed against proteins of the caveolar/raft domains may selectively direct the attached drug carrier to the less harmful caveolar/raft pathway. Thus, understanding of caveolar transport may help in the rational design of more effective drug carriers.


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