Доступ предоставлен для: Guest
Портал Begell Электронная Бибилиотека e-Книги Журналы Справочники и Сборники статей Коллекции
High Temperature Material Processes: An International Quarterly of High-Technology Plasma Processes
ESCI SJR: 0.176 SNIP: 0.48 CiteScore™: 1.3

ISSN Печать: 1093-3611
ISSN Онлайн: 1940-4360

Том 24, 2020 Том 23, 2019 Том 22, 2018 Том 21, 2017 Том 20, 2016 Том 19, 2015 Том 18, 2014 Том 17, 2013 Том 16, 2012 Том 15, 2011 Том 14, 2010 Том 13, 2009 Том 12, 2008 Том 11, 2007 Том 10, 2006 Том 9, 2005 Том 8, 2004 Том 7, 2003 Том 6, 2002 Том 5, 2001 Том 4, 2000 Том 3, 1999 Том 2, 1998 Том 1, 1997

High Temperature Material Processes: An International Quarterly of High-Technology Plasma Processes

DOI: 10.1615/HighTempMatProc.2019030938
pages 221-237


Olga V. Maksakova
Sumy State University, 2 Rimsky-Korsakov Str., Sumy, 40007, Ukraine
Alexander D. Pogrebnjak
Department of Nanoelectronics, Sumy State University, 2 Rimsky-Korsakov Str., 40007 Sumy, Ukraine
V. M. Beresnev
V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, 4 Svoboda Sq., Kharkiv, 61022, Ukraine
S. V. Plotnikov
D. Serkbayev East Kazakhstan State Technical University, 69 A.K. Protozanov Str., Ust-Kamenogorsk, 070000, Republic of Kazakhstan
S. Simoẽs
CEMMPRE, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Porto, R. Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal

Краткое описание

The thermal stability of cathodic arc evaporated ZrN/CrN multilayer coatings was specially investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. The investigated coatings had a coarse surface structure. Good uniformity of alternating layers of ZrN and CrN was observed in the cross-section images. It was clearly seen that at first the layers repeated the relief of the substrate but subsequently they were aligned during consequent growth of the film. According to the analysis of the elemental composition, the ZrN layers had a higher content of N than the CrN layers as the nitrogen has a stronger affinity for zirconium than chromium. An analysis of the diffractograms obtained from investigated multilayers revealed the presence of two phases: ZrN and CrN or ZrN and Cr2N + CrN that corresponded to the deposited layers. In the ZrN and CrN layers the crystallites with preferred orientation axes [100] and [111], respectively, were formed. The changes in phase transformations and thermal properties were registered during heating and consequent cooling cycles within the temperature range from 30 to 1400°C in argon flow. During heating, the exothermic reactions started at around 620 or 1100°C and pointed out the phase transformations in the CrN layers. The phase transformations improved the structural order of the systems and caused a uniform growth of crystallites. It was obvious that the resistance of the multilayer coatings to high temperatures was influenced by the deposition parameters and elemental composition. The maximum enthalpy of –286.97 J/g was reached at the exothermic reaction.


  1. Anders, A., Unfiltered and Filtered Cathodic Arc Deposition, in Handbook of Deposition Technologies for Films and Coatings, P.M. Martin, Ed., Amsterdam: Elsevier Inc., pp. 466-531, 2010.

  2. Andrievski, R.A., Anisimova, I.A., Anisimov, V.P., Makarov, V.P., and Popova, V.P., Grain Size and Re-crystallization of TiN, ZrN, NbN, and CrN Alloyed and Multilayer Films, Thin Solid Films, vol. 261, nos. 1-2, pp. 83-86, 1995.

  3. Beresnev, V.M., Bondar, O.V., Postolnyi, B.O., Lisovenko, M.O., Abadias, G., Chartier, P., Kolesnikov, D.A., Borisyuk, V.N., Mukushev, B.A., Zhollybekov, B.R., and Andreev, A.A., Comparison of Tribological Characteristics of Nanostructured TiN, MoN, and TiN/MoN Arc-PVD Coatings, J. Friction Wear, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 374-382, 2014.

  4. Bondar, O.V., Postol'nyi, B.A., Beresnev, V.M., Abadias, G., Chartier, P., Sobol, O.V., Kolesnikov, D.A., Komarov, F.F., Lisovenko, M.O., and Andreev, A.A., Composition, Structure and Tribotechnical Properties of TiN, MoN Single-Layer and TiN/MoN Multilayer Coatings, J. Superhard Mater., vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 27-38, 2015.

  5. Chen, S.-F., Kuo, Y.-C., Wang, C.-J., Huang, S.-H., Lee, J.-W., Chan, Y.-C., Chen, H.-W., Duh, J.-G., and Hsieh, T.-E., The Effect of Cr/Zr Chemical Composition Ratios on the Mechanical Properties of CrN/ZrN Multilayered Coatings Deposited by Cathodic Arc Deposition System, Surf. Coat. Technol., vol. 231, pp. 247-252, 2013.

  6. Chim, Y.C., Ding, X.Z., Zeng, X.T., and Zhang, S., Oxidation Resistance of TiN, CrN, TiAlN, and CrAlN Coatings Deposited by Lateral Rotating Cathode Arc, Thin Solid Films, vol. 517, no. 17, pp. 4845-4849, 2009.

  7. Ehiasarian, A.P., Hovsepian, P.E., Hultman, L., and Helmersson, U., Comparison of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Chromium Nitride-Based Coatings Deposited by High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering and by the Combined Steered Cathodic Arc/Unbalanced Magnetron Technique, Thin Solid Films, vol. 457, no. 2, pp. 270-277, 2004.

  8. Feng, L., Ming-Xia, W., Qian-Xiang, L., and De-Jun, L., Multilayered Gradient CrN/ZrN Coatings Synthesized by Magnetron Sputtering, Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China, vol. 14, pp. 243-246, 2004.

  9. Gallagher, P.K., Thermogravimetry and Thermomagnetometry, in Handbook of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, P.K. Gallagher and M.E. Brown, Eds., Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 225-278, 1998.

  10. Gribaudo, L., Arias, D., and Abriata, J., The N-Zr (Nitrogen-Zirconium) System, J. Phase Equilib., vol. 15, pp. 441-449, 1994.

  11. Haines, P.J., Reading, M., and Wiburn, F.W., Differential Thermal Analysis and Differential Scanning Calorimetry, in Handbook of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, P.K. Gallagher and M.E. Brown, Eds., Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 279-361, 1998.

  12. Han, B., Wang, Z., Devi, N., Kondamareddy, K.K., Wang, Z., Li, N., Zuo, W., Fu, D., and Liu, C., RBS Depth Profiling Analysis of (Ti, Al)N/MoN and CrN/MoN Multilayers, Nanoscale Res. Lett., vol. 12, no. 1, p. 161, 2017.

  13. Huang, S.-H., Chen, S.-F., Kuo, Y.-C., Wang, C.-J., Lee, J.-W., Chan, Y.-C., Chen, H.-W., Duh, J.-G., and Hsieh, T.-E., Mechanical and Tribological Properties Evaluation of Cathodic Arc Deposited CrN/ZrN Multilayer Coatings, Surf. Coat. Technol., vol. 206, no. 7, pp. 1744-1752, 2011.

  14. Huhne, G., Hemminger, W., and Flammersheim, H.J., Eds., Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1996.

  15. Kalss, W., Reiter, A., Derflinger, V., Gey, C., and Endrino, J.L., Modern Coatings in High Performance Cutting Applications, Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater., vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 399-404, 2006.

  16. Kim, G.S., Lee, S.Y., Hahn, J.H., and Lee, S.Y., Synthesis of CrN/AlN Superlattice Coatings using Closed-Field Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering Process, Surf. Coat. Technol., vol. 171, nos. 1-3, pp. 91-95, 2003.

  17. Kim, M.-K., Kim, G.-S., and Lee, S.-Y., Synthesis and Characterization of Multilayer CrN/ZrN Coatings, Met. Mater. Int., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 465-470, 2008.

  18. Lavrentiev, V.I. and Pogrebnjak, A.D., High-Dose Ion Implantation into Metals, Surf. Coat. Technol., vol. 99, nos. 1-2, pp. 24-32, 1998.

  19. Li, D.J., Liu, F., Wang, M.X., Zhang, J.J., and Liu, Q.X., Structural and Mechanical Properties of Multi-layered Gradient CrN/ZrN Coatings, Thin Solid Films, vols. 506-507, pp. 202-206, 2006.

  20. Lin, J., Mishra, B., Moore, J.J., and Sproul, W.D., A Study of the Oxidation Behavior of CrN and CrAlN Thin Films in Air Using DSC and TGA Analyses, Surf. Coat. Technol., vol. 202, no. 14, pp. 3272-3283, 2008.

  21. Lu, F.H. and Chen, H.Y., Phase Changes of CrN Films Annealed at High Temperature under Controlled Atmosphere, Thin Solid Films, vols. 398-399, pp. 368-373, 2001.

  22. Lu, F.-H. and Lo, W.-Z., Degradation of ZrN Films at High Temperature under Controlled Atmosphere, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A Vacuum, Surfaces, Film, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 2071-2076, 2004.

  23. Maksakova, O., Simoes, S., Pogrebnjak, A., Bondar, O., Kravchenko, Y., Beresnev, V., and Erdybaeva, N., The Influence of Deposition Conditions and Bilayer Thickness on Physical-Mechanical Properties of CA-PVD Multilayer ZrN/CrN Coatings, Mater. Charact, vol. 140, pp. 189-196, 2018a.

  24. Maksakova, O.V., Pogrebnjak, A.D., Kravchenko, Ya., and Simoes, S., Characterization of Multilayered ZrN/CrN Coatings Deposited by Vacuum Arc Technology, Nanomaterials: Application and Properties 2017, Proc. of IEEE 7th Int. Conf. on Nanomaterials: Application and Properties, Odessa, Ukraine, pp. 01PCSI09-1-01PCSI09-5, 2017.

  25. Maksakova, O.V., Pogrebnjak, O.D., and Beresnev, V.M., Features of Investigations of Multilayer Nitride Coatings Based on Cr and Zr, Usp. Fiz. Met., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 25-48, 2018b.

  26. Maksakova, O.V., Simoes, S., Pogrebnjak, A.D., Bondar, O.V., Kravchenko, Ya.O., Koltunowicz, T.N., and Shaimardanov, Zh.K., Multilayered ZrN/CrN Coatings with Enhanced Thermal and Mechanical Properties, J. Alloys Compd., vol. 776, pp. 679-690, 2019.

  27. Mayr, W., Lengauer, W., Rafaja, D., Bauer, J., and Bohn, M., Phase Equilibria and Multiphase Reaction Diffusion in the Cr-C and Cr-N Systems, J. Phase Equilib., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 35-44, 1999.

  28. Mayrhofer, P.H., Sonnleitner, D., Bartosik, M., and Holec, D., Structural and Mechanical Evolution of Reactively and Non-Reactively Sputtered Zr-Al-N Thin Films during Annealing, Surf. Coat. Tech- nol., vol. 244, pp. 52-56, 2014.

  29. Mayrhofer, P.H., Willmann, H., and Mitterer, C., Oxidation Kinetics of Sputtered Cr-N Hard Coatings, Surf. Coat. Technol., vols. 146-147, pp. 222-228, 2001.

  30. Mayrhofer, P.H., Willmann, H., and Reiter, A.E., Structure and Phase Evolution of Cr-Al-N Coatings during Annealing, Surf. Coat. Technol., vol. 202, no. 20, pp. 4935-4938, 2008.

  31. Musil, J. and Zeman, J., Hard a-Si3N4/MeNx Nanocomposite Coatings with High Thermal Stability and High Oxidation Resistance, Solid State Phenom., vol. 127, pp. 31-36, 2005.

  32. Navinsek, B., Panjan, P., and Milosev, I., Industrial Applications of CrN (PVD) Coatings, Deposited at High and Low Temperatures, Surf. Coat. Technol., vol. 97, nos. 1-3, pp. 182-191, 1997.

  33. Nordin, M., Larsson, M., and Hogmark, S., Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Multilayered PVD TiN/CrN, TiN/MoN, TiN/NbN, and TiN/TaN Coatings on Cemented Carbide, Surf. Coat. Technol., vol. 106, nos. 2-3, pp. 234-241, 1998.

  34. Oettel, H., Wiedemann, R., and PreiBler, S., Residual Stresses in Nitride Hard Coatings Prepared by Magnetron Sputtering and Arc Evaporation, Surf. Coat. Technol., vols. 74-75, pp. 273-278, 1995.

  35. Pogrebnjak, A., Maksakova, O., Kozak, C., Koltunowicz, T.N., Grankin, S., Bondar, O., Eskermesov, D., Drozdenko, A., Petrov, S., and Erdybaeva, N., Physical and Mechanical Properties of Nanostructured (Ti-Zr-Nb)N Coatings Obtained by Vacuum-Arc Deposition Method, Przegl. Elektrotech., vol. 2016, no. 8, pp. 180, 2016a.

  36. Pogrebnjak, A.D. and Ruzimov, Sh.M., Increased Microhardness and Positron Annihilation in Al Exposed to a High-Power Ion Beam, Phys. Lett. A, vol. 120, no. 5, pp. 259-261, 1987.

  37. Pogrebnjak, A.D., Bagdasaryan, A.A., Pshyk, A., and Dyadyura K., Adaptive Multicomponent Nanocomposite Coatings in Surface Engineering, Phys.-Uspekhi, vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 586-607, 2017.

  38. Pogrebnjak, A.D., Bor'ba, S.O., Kravchenko, Ya.O., Tleukenov, E.O., Plotnikov, C.V., Beresnev, V.M., Takeda, Y., Oyoshi, K., and Kupchishin, A.I., Effect of the High Doze o f N+(1018 tation into the (TiHfZrVNbTa)N Nanostructured Coating on Its Microstructure, Elemental and Phase Compositions, and Physico-Mechanical Properties, J. Superhard Mater., vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 393-401, 2016b.

  39. Pogrebnjak, A.D., Sobol, O.V., Beresnev, V.M., Turbin, P.V., Kirik, G.V., Makhmudov, N.A., Il'yashenko, M.V., Shypylenko, A.P., Kaverin, M.V., Tashmetov, M.Yu., and Pshyk, A.V., Phase Composition, Thermal Stability, Physical and Mechanical Properties of Superhard on Base Zr-Ti-Si-N Nanocomposite Coatings, in Nanostructured Materials and Nanotechnology IV, S. Mathur, S.S. Ray, and T. Ohji, Eds., Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., pp. 127-138, 2010.

  40. Pohler, M., Franz, R., Ramm, J., Polcik, P., and Mitterer, C., Cathodic Arc Deposition of (Al, Cr)2O3: Macroparticles and Cathode Surface Modifications, Surf. Coat. Technol., vol. 206, no. 6, pp. 1454-1460, 2011.

  41. Polcar, T., Martinez, R., Vitu, T., Kopecky, L., Rodriguez, R., and Cavaleiro, A., High Temperature Tribology of CrN and Multilayered Cr/CrN Coatings, Surf. Coat. Technol., vol. 203, nos. 20-21, pp. 3254-3259, 2009.

  42. Qi, Z.B., Liu, B., Wu, Z.T., Zhu, F.P., Wang, Z.C., and Wu, C.H., A Comparative Study of the Oxidation Behavior of Cr2N and CrN Coatings, Thin Solid Films, vol. 544, pp. 515-520, 2013.

  43. Raab, R., Koller, C.M., Kolozsvari, S., Ramm, J., and Mayrhofer, P.H., Thermal Stability of Arc Evaporated Al-Cr-O and Al-Cr-O/Al-Cr-N Multilayer Coatings, Surf. Coat. Technol., vol. 352, pp. 213.

  44. Reiter, A.E., Derflinger, V.H., Hanselmann, B., Bachmann, T., and Sartory, B., Investigation of the Properties of Al1-xCrxN Coatings Prepared by Cathodic Arc Evaporation, Surf. Coat. Technol., vol. 200, no. 7, pp. 2114-2122, 2005.

  45. Rizzo, A., Signore, M.A., Penza, M., Tagliente, M.A., Riccardis, F., and Serra, E., RF Sputtering Deposition of Alternate TiN/ZrN Multilayer Hard Coatings, Thin Solid Films, vol. 515, no. 2, pp. 500-504, 2006.

  46. Rovere, F. and Mayrhofer, P.H., Thermal Stability and Thermo-Mechanical Properties of Magnetron Sputtered Cr-Al-Y-N Coatings, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, vol. 26, p. 29, 2008.

  47. Sabitzer, C., Paulitsch, J., Kolozsvari, S., Rachbauer, R., and Mayrhofer, P.H., Impact of Bias Potential and Layer Arrangement on Thermal Stability of Arc Evaporated Al-Cr-N Coatings, Thin Solid Films, vol. 610, pp. 26-34, 2016.

  48. Sanchez, N.A., Suarez, H.E., Vivas, Z., Aperador, W., Amaya, C., and Caicedo, J.C., Fracture Resistant and Wear Corrosion Performance of CrN/ZrN Bilayers Deposited onto AISI 420 Stainless Steel, Adv. Mater. Res., vol. 38, pp. 63-75, 2008.

  49. Scherrer, P., Bestimmung der Grosse und der inneren Struktur von Kolloidteilchen mittels Rontgen-strahlen, Nachrichten von der Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Gottingen, Math. Klasse, vol. 1918, pp. 98-100, 1918.

  50. Willmann, H., Mayrhofer, P.H., Persson, P.O.A., Reiter, A.E., Hultman, L., and Mitterer, C., Thermal Stability of Al-Cr-N Hard Coatings, Scr. Mater, vol. 54, no. 11, pp. 1847-1851, 2006.

  51. Xu, X.M., Wang, J., An, J., Zhao, Y., and Zhang, Q.Y., Effect of Modulation Structure on the Growth Behavior and Mechanical Properties of TiN/ZrN Multilayers, Surf. Coat. Technol, vol. 201, nos. 9-11, pp. 5582-5586, 2007.

  52. Yashar, P.C. and Sproul, W.D., Nanometer Scale Multilayered Hard Coatings, Vacuum, vol. 55, nos. 3-4, pp. 179-190, 1999.

  53. York, B.R., Residual Stress/Strain Analysis in Thin Films by X-ray Diffraction, Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 25-177, 1995.

  54. Zhang, Z.G., Rapaud, O., Allain, N., Mercs, D., Baraket, M., Dong, C., and Coddet, C., Microstructures and Tribological Properties of CrN/ZrN Nanoscale Multilayer Coatings, Appl. Surf. Sci., vol. 255, no. 7, pp. 4020-4026, 2009.

Articles with similar content:

High Temperature Material Processes: An International Quarterly of High-Technology Plasma Processes, Vol.21, 2017, issue 3
Konstantin A. Prosolov, Yu. P. Sharkeev, O. A. Belyavskaya, J. V. Rau
High Temperature Material Processes: An International Quarterly of High-Technology Plasma Processes, Vol.23, 2019, issue 2
Andrej K. Kuleshov, V. M. Anishchik, I. A. Sakovich, D. P. Rusalski, Alexander A. Malashevich, Vladimir V. Uglov, V. A. Firago
Nanoscience and Technology: An International Journal, Vol.7, 2016, issue 4
D. Yu. Sinitsyn, V. N. Anikin, S. A. Eremin, B. V. Ryabenko
Formation and Removal Processes of CaC03 Fouling
Proceedings of an International Conference on Mitigation of Heat Exchanger Fouling and Its Economic and Environmental Implications, Vol.0, 1999, issue
Liu Tianqing, Shi Yuwen , Wang Xinghai
Progress in Plasma Processing of Materials, 2003, Vol.0, 2003, issue
Z.A. Korotaeva, A.E. Lapin, V.A. Poluboyarov, O. P. Solonenko, V.I. Kuz'min, A.N. Cherepanov