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Computation of Velocities, Mass Transport, and Current Efficiencies in Hall-Heroult Cells

J. W. Evans
Department of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering and Molecular and Materials Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA

Y. Zundelevich
Department of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering and Molecular and Materials Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA

E. D. Tarapore
Kaiser Aluminum Permanente, California 95014, USA

D. Sharma
Dames and Moore Denver, Colorado 80215, USA

Аннотация

The magnetic fields, current densities, metal and electrolyte velocities and current efficiencies within the Hall-Heroult cells used to produce aluminum have been predicted from first principles. The computation of current densities has carried out by solving Ohms law enabling the calculation of magnetic field sectors from the Biot-Savart law. The cross product of the current densities and magnetic fields then yielded the electromagnetic stirring forces acting on the molten metal and electrolyte. By employing a turbulence model and the time averaged Havier-Stokes equations, velocities within these two liquids could be calculated. Following this the mass flux of aluminum from the aluminum-electrolyte interface could be calculated using an equation due to Levich and subsequently the current efficiency predicted. Predicted field strengths and metal velocities within a 185 kiloamp cell were in approximate agreement with measured values.

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