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DOI: 10.1615/AnnualRevHeatTransfer.v3.30
pages 1-38

Boris Rubinsky
University of California at Berkeley, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 6124a Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA

Takeshi Kurt Eto
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California


The present work gives an overview of the models used to describe the process of freezing biological materials. The first model analyzed is that of a homogeneous saline solution. Experimental results are used to validate the analytical studies. Based on these results, the inverse method technique, which is used to obtain boundary conditions that maintain optimal thermal conditions, is discussed. Also, a model for heat transfer by perfusion is evaluated. Based on new experimental studies on the process of freezing liver tissue, a theory is proposed to describe the freezing phenomenon in tissue and possible mechanisms for damage. Finally, the insights gained through these new experiments are used to develop a new general energy equation to model the freezing process in biological tissue.

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